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Table 2 Results of almond-only substitution models, NHANES 2009-2012

From: Replacing American snacks with tree nuts increases consumption of key nutrients among US children and adults: results of an NHANES modeling study

  Population mean (95% CI)
  Observed Model 1a Model 2b
Macronutrients
Total fat (g/d) 81.5 (80.7, 82.2) 97.2 (96.3, 98.1)*** 94.1 (93.2, 95)***
Saturated fat (g/d) 26.8 (26.5, 27.1) 24.2 (24, 24.5)*** 24.2 (24, 24.5)***
Monounsaturated fat (g/d) 29.1 (28.9, 29.4) 42.9 (42.4, 43.4)*** 40.6 (40.2, 41.1)***
Polyunsaturated fat (g/d) 18.7 (18.4, 19) 22.9 (22.6, 23.2)*** 22.2 (21.9, 22.5)***
Alpha-linolenic acid (mg/d) 1651 (1626, 1675) 1420 (1399, 1441)*** 1442 (1420, 1463)***
Protein (g/d) 79.8 (79.1, 80.5) 83.8 (83.0, 84.5)*** 82.9 (82.2, 83.5)***
Oils (g/d) 25.0 (24.6, 25.5) 40 (39.5, 40.6)*** 37.6 (37.1, 38.1)***
Solid fats (g/d) 39.1 (38.6, 39.6) 31 (30.5, 31.4)*** 31.6 (31.1, 32.1)***
Carbohydrates (g/d) 275 (273, 277) 240 (239, 242)*** 248 (246, 250)***
Added sugars (tsp/d) 20.1 (19.8, 20.4) 16.6 (16.4, 16.9)*** 16.8 (16.5, 17)***
Empty calories (kcal/d) 689 (681, 696) 553 (546, 560)*** 563 (556, 570)***
Vitamins & Minerals
Fiber (g/d) 16.7 (16.4, 17) 19.9 (19.6, 20.2)*** 20.4 (20.1, 20.7)***
Magnesium (mg/d) 301 (298, 305) 424 (419, 429)*** 410 (405, 415)***
Potassium (mg/d) 2683 (2655, 2710) 2777 (2751, 2803)*** 2814 (2786, 2841)***
Sodium (mg/d) 3518 (3493, 3543) 3220 (3200, 3240)*** 3410 (3387, 3433)***
  1. ***Indicates that population mean values between the Model and Observed diets were highly statistically significant (p < 0.001)
  2. aModel 1 replaced all snack foods
  3. bModel 2 replaced all snack foods with the exception of non-starchy vegetables, fruits and foods where more than 50% of the grain comes from whole grains