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Table 3 Ethnic-specific prevalence ratios for cardiometabolic risk according to serum 25(OH)D status, NHANES 2001–2010

From: Standardized serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are inversely associated with cardiometabolic disease in U.S. adults: a cross-sectional analysis of NHANES, 2001–2010

  HOMAIR    MetS    CVD Risk (≥15%)   
  Yes No PR 95% CI Yes No PR 95% CI Yes No PR 95% CI
A
Mexican Americans       
 25(OH)D quartiles (nmol/L)             
   < 43.4 175 346 Ref 263 258 Ref 122 399 Ref
  43.4–58.6 156 445 0.9 0.70, 1.15 253 348 0.80 * 0.66, 0.97 132 469 0.85 0.66, 1.09
  58.7–74.2 94 366 0.82 0.63, 1.07 188 272 0.95 0.78, 1.16 109 351 0.87 0.67, 1.14
   ≥ 74.3 25 187 0.54 * 0.35, 0.82 67 145 0.73 * 0.55, 0.96 45 167 0.90 0.69, 1.16
Non-Hispanic Whites             
 25(OH)D quartiles (nmol/L)             
   < 43.4 178 274 Ref 255 197 Ref 156 296 Ref
  43.4–58.6 290 623 1.33 0.94, 1.36 452 461 1.07 0.95, 1.21 271 642 0.86 0.73, 1.01
  58.7–74.2 314 998 0.93 0.77, 1.24 565 747 1.00 0.88, 1.14 378 934 0.88 0.75, 1.04
   ≥ 74.3 290 1322 0.81 * 0.68, 0.96 528 1084 0.84 * 0.73, 0.95 364 1248 0.78 * 0.64, 0.93
Non-Hispanic Blacks             
 25(OH)D quartiles (nmol/L)             
   < 43.4 246 668 Ref 327 587 Ref 209 705 Ref
  43.4–58.6 80 300 0.89 0.71, 1.11 115 265 1.00 0.84, 1.19 92 288 0.83 0.65, 1.05
  58.7–74.2 53 147 1.03 0.78, 1.38 78 122 1.11 0.89, 1.37 66 134 0.98 0.78, 1.23
   ≥ 74.3 18 79 0.67 * 0.45, 0.99 34 63 0.74 * 0.56, 0.97 21 76 0.58 * 0.41, 0.81
B Excluding participants with self-reported diabetes, CVD, and those taking relevant medications
Mexican Americans             
 25(OH)D quartiles (nmol/L)             
   < 43.4 98 273 Ref 135 236 Ref 41 330 Ref
  43.4–58.6 89 343 0.99 0.72, 1.37 124 308 0.82 0.63, 1.07 32 400 0.49 * 0.29, 0.82
  58.7–74.2 56 289 0.98 0.69, 1.38 106 239 1.08 0.82, 1.41 37 308 0.81 0.46, 1.44
   ≥ 74.3 15 143 0.53 * 0.31, 0.91 31 127 0.63 * 0.44, 0.91 17 141 1.27 0.83, 1.94
Non-Hispanic Whites             
 25(OH)D quartiles (nmol/L)             
   < 43.4 86 166 Ref 98 154 Ref 46 206 Ref
  43.4–58.6 146 436 0.92 0.73, 1.19 184 398 0.98 0.79, 1.22 83 499 0.78 0.54, 1.13
  58.7–74.2 124 692 0.76 * 0.58, 0.99 198 618 0.89 0.71, 1.12 92 724 0.68 * 0.47, 0.97
   ≥ 74.3 105 931 0.61 * 0.44, 0.83 156 880 0.61 * 0.47, 0.80 96 940 0.56 * 0.39, 0.80
Non-Hispanic Blacks             
 25(OH)D quartiles (nmol/L)             
   < 43.4 126 488 Ref 128 486 Ref 63 551 Ref
  43.4–58.6 39 212 0.89 0.64, 1.24 42 209 1.05 0.77, 1.45 24 227 1.05 0.70, 1.58
  58.7–74.2 19 88 1.1 0.69, 1.76 26 81 1.49 1.06, 2.10 12 95 1.26 0.66, 2.38
   ≥ 74.3 5 54 0.73 0.32, 1.70 6 53 0.55 0.25, 1.21 6 53 0.72 0.33, 1.58
  1. Models are adjusted for age, sex, education, season of blood draw, survey cycle, smoking, BMI, total physical activity, vitamin D supplement use, and lipid and anti-hyperglycemic medications. * P < 0.05