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Table 3 Odd ratios and 95% confidence intervals of stroke by coffee consumption stratified by age, body mass index (BMI), hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking status, and alcohol consumption in the Health Examinees (HEXA) Study

From: Relationship between coffee consumption and stroke risk in Korean population: the Health Examinees (HEXA) Study

Categories of coffee consumption (cup/day)
  no. of events None <1 1 to 3 ≥3 P for trend
Male (n = 50439)
aAge (years)
 65- 512 1.00 0.80 (0.60-1.07) 0.83 (0.64-1.07) 0.75 (0.56-0.99) 0.0802
 65+ 252 1.00 1.25 (0.83-1.90) 1.16 (0.80-1.70) 0.93 (0.59-1.47) 0.7079
bBMI (kg/m2)
  < 25 425 1.00 1.01 (0.74-1.36) 0.88 (0.67-1.17) 0.87 (0.63-1.19) 0.2420
  ≥ 25 335 1.00 0.86 (0.59-1.25) 0.96 (0.69-1.34) 0.80 (0.55-1.17) 0.4197
cHypertension
 Nonhypertensive 368 1.00 1.01 (0.69-1.48) 0.86 (0.60-1.22) 0.86 (0.59-1.26) 0.2839
 Hypertensive 396 1.00 0.90 (0.67-1.22) 0.96 (0.73-1.25) 0.81 (0.59-1.12) 0.3156
dDiabetes mellitus
 Nondiabetic 573 1.00 1.02 (0.78-1.34) 0.86 (0.67-1.11) 0.86 (0.65-1.13) 0.1249
 Diabetic 191 1.00 0.76 (0.47-1.24) 1.11 (0.74-1.67) 0.77 (0.47-1.27) 0.8031
eSmoking status
 Never and past 604 1.00 1.01 (0.78-1.30) 0.96 (0.76-1.21) 0.89 (0.67-1.17) 0.3436
 Current 157 1.00 0.71 (0.38-1.32) 0.76 (0.44-1.30) 0.73 (0.42-1.27) 0.4607
fAlcohol consumption
 Never and past 356 1.00 1.13 (0.81-1.58) 1.00 (0.74-1.36) 0.72 (0.50-1.03) 0.0636
 Current 407 1.00 0.78 (0.56-1.09) 0.78 (0.58-1.05) 0.85 (0.61-1.18) 0.4576
Female (n = 96391)
aAge (years)
 65- 552 1.00 0.66 (0.53-0.84) 0.58 (0.47-0.72) 0.56 (0.42-0.76) <.0001
 65+ 211 1.00 0.64 (0.45-0.62) 0.59 (0.42-0.83) 0.59 (0.30-1.17) 0.0022
bBMI (kg/m2)
  < 25 437 1.00 0.68 (0.53-0.88) 0.59 (0.46-0.74) 0.53 (0.36-0.77) <.0001
  ≥ 25 324 1.00 0.69 (0.51-0.94) 0.64 (0.48-0.85) 0.74 (0.50-1.10) 0.0203
cHypertension
 Nonhypertensive 364 1.00 0.54 (0.39-0.75) 0.60 (0.45-0.80) 0.52 (0.34-0.80) 0.0007
 Hypertensive 399 1.00 0.77 (0.60-0.98) 0.60 (0.48-0.76) 0.70 (0.49-0.99) 0.0001
dDiabetes mellitus
 Nondiabetic 613 1.00 0.64 (0.51-0.80) 0.57 (0.47-0.70) 0.66 (0.49-0.88) <.0001
 Diabetic 150 1.00 0.80 (0.52-1.22) 0.74 (0.50-1.11) 0.29 (0.11-0.74) 0.0132
eSmoking status
 Never and past 736 1.00 0.67 (0.55-0.82) 0.59 (0.49-0.71) 0.58 (0.43-0.77) <.0001
 Current 23 1.00 2.09 (0.30-14.78) 2.88 (0.54-15.25) 3.30 (0.61-17.91) 0.1571
fAlcohol consumption
 Never and past 612 1.00 0.66 (0.53-0.82) 0.61 (0.50-0.74) 0.61 (0.44-0.84) <.0001
 Current 147 1.00 0.78 (0.47-1.29) 0.59 (0.37-0.95) 0.63 (0.35-1.13) 0.0417
  1. aAdjusted by education, alcohol consumption, regular exercise, BMI, smoking, total energy, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia
  2. bAdjusted by age, education, alcohol consumption, regular exercise, smoking, total energy, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia
  3. cAdjusted by age, education, alcohol consumption, regular exercise, BMI, smoking, total energy, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia
  4. dAdjusted by age, education, alcohol consumption, regular exercise, BMI, smoking, total energy, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia
  5. eAdjusted by age, education, alcohol consumption, regular exercise, BMI, total energy, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia
  6. fAdjusted by age, education, regular exercise, BMI, smoking, total energy, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia