Skip to main content

Table 3 Adjusted mean (SE) Total healthy eating index-2010 (HEI) and component scores for all grain clusters using NHANES 2005–2010, 2–18 years of age

From: Several grain dietary patterns are associated with better diet quality and improved shortfall nutrient intakes in US children and adolescents: a study focusing on the 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans

  No Grains Cakes, Cookies & Pies Yeast Breads and Rolls Cereals Pasta, Cooked Cereals & Rice Crackers & Salty Snacks Pancakes, Waffles, French Toast and Other Grains Quick Breads
HEI-2010 Component Cluster 0 Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Cluster 4 Cluster 5 Cluster 6 Cluster 7
  LSM SE LSM SE P LSM SE P LSM SE P LSM SE P LSM SE P LSM SE P LSM SE P
Total Vegetables 2.52 0.13 2.13 0.10 0.0327 2.16 0.05 0.0121 2.44 0.16 0.7002 2.56 0.17 0.8395 1.93 0.06 0.0001 1.74 0.10 <0.0001 2.06 0.07 0.0024
Greens and Beans 0.30 0.07 0.50 0.10 0.0784 0.62 0.05 0.0002 0.61 0.16 0.0617 1.32 0.20 <0.0001 0.54 0.04 0.0064 0.52 0.09 0.0808 0.77 0.08 0.0004
Total Fruit 1.97 0.11 2.28 0.14 0.0468 2.58 0.07 <0.0001 2.51 0.17 0.0039 2.72 0.16 0.0007 2.55 0.06 <0.0001 2.60 0.12 0.0002 2.57 0.10 0.0003
Whole Fruit 1.72 0.17 1.96 0.19 0.3720 2.31 0.08 0.0004 2.38 0.23 0.0073 2.51 0.18 0.0081 2.21 0.07 0.0038 2.33 0.14 0.0079 2.25 0.09 0.0087
Whole Grains 0.26 0.06 0.57 0.10 0.0033 2.11 0.08 <0.0001 2.24 0.17 <0.0001 2.58 0.28 <0.0001 2.36 0.12 <0.0001 1.44 0.15 <0.0001 1.66 0.12 <0.0001
Dairy 6.84 0.26 6.53 0.25 0.3773 7.20 0.09 0.2028 8.09 0.29 0.0029 6.78 0.22 0.8751 6.76 0.11 0.7361 6.89 0.21 0.8796 7.12 0.16 0.3282
Total Protein Foods 3.65 0.14 3.03 0.14 0.0002 3.74 0.05 0.4854 3.38 0.16 0.1844 3.66 0.15 0.9260 3.36 0.05 0.0363 3.59 0.09 0.7878 3.47 0.08 0.3256
Seafood and Plant Protein 0.98 0.13 1.10 0.16 0.4806 1.46 0.08 <0.0001 0.98 0.18 0.9839 1.45 0.21 0.1112 1.37 0.06 0.0161 1.14 0.09 0.2582 1.47 0.09 0.0018
Fatty Acid Ratio 3.31 0.23 3.84 0.23 0.1020 3.30 0.08 0.9556 3.06 0.34 0.5560 4.15 0.31 0.0378 4.34 0.11 0.0001 3.74 0.18 0.1540 3.81 0.16 0.1028
Sodium 4.98 0.34 6.78 0.23 0.0002 4.69 0.09 0.4418 4.98 0.35 1.0000 3.97 0.34 0.0330 5.00 0.14 0.9503 4.69 0.20 0.4555 4.93 0.18 0.8815
Refined Grains 6.78 0.30 5.72 0.23 0.0054 5.40 0.12 0.0001 7.02 0.33 0.5979 6.55 0.26 0.5711 4.95 0.08 <0.0001 4.63 0.21 <0.0001 4.20 0.16 <0.0001
SoFAAS Calories 9.42 0.58 6.46 0.41 0.0003 10.50 0.21 0.0992 10.80 0.63 0.1216 12.33 0.54 0.0004 10.65 0.16 0.0250 10.19 0.36 0.2374 10.00 0.34 0.3755
HEI-2010 Total Score 42.72 0.85 40.90 0.92 0.1926 46.06 0.48 0.0003 48.48 1.19 0.0005 50.58 1.02 <0.0001 46.02 0.44 0.0009 43.49 0.60 0.4102 44.33 0.65 0.1534
  1. NHANES 2005–2010, N = 8,367
  2. LSM: least square mean; SE: standard error; P = p: value of difference as compared to cluster 0 (no grains)
  3. SoFAAS: solid fat, alcohol, added sugars
  4. Covariates include age, gender, ethnicity, poverty income ratio, physical activity, current smoking status, and alcohol