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Table 3 Change in outcome measures at 10 weeks of intervention with protein and exercise effectsa

From: Effect of a high protein diet and/or resistance exercise on the preservation of fat free mass during weight loss in overweight and obese older adults: a randomized controlled trial

  Control Protein Exercise Protein + Exercise Protein effect Exercise effect Protein * Exercise interaction
(n = 22) (n = 21) (n = 25) (n = 32) Beta (95% CI)b P c Beta (95% CI)b P c Beta (95% CI)d P e
Body weight, kg −1.7 ± 1.8* −2.1 ± 3.6* −2.6 ± 2.9* −2.0 ± 2.2* +0.1 (–0.7;1.0) 0.763 −0.3 (−1.1;0.5) 0.472 NS  
BMI, kg/m2 −0.6 ± 0.6* −0.8 ± 1.1* −1.0 ± 1.0* −0.9 ± 0.9* −0.0 (−0.3;0.3) 0.924 −0.2 (−0.5;0.1) 0.213 NS  
Waist circumference, cm −3 ± 4* −3 ± 4* −4 ± 4* −3 ± 3*f +0.3 (−0.9;1.4) 0.673 −0.4 (−1.6;0.8) 0.555 NS  
Fat mass, kg −1.5 ± 2.5*g −2.1 ± 3.4* −2.8 ± 3.7* −2.6 ± 2.4* −0.0 (−1.0;0.9) 0.946 −0.8 (−1.7;0.2) 0.124 NS  
Fat percentage, % −1.0 ± 2.1*g −1.3 ± 2.2* −1.9 ± 3.3* −2.1 ± 2.0* −0.1 (−0.9;0.6) 0.736 −0.8 (−1.6;−0.0) 0.048 NS  
Fat free mass, kg −0.0 ± 1.4g 0.0 ± 1.5 +0.2 ± 2.3 +0.6 ± 1.3* +0.1 (−0.4;0.7) 0.666 +0.3 (−0.2;0.9) 0.233 NS  
Handgrip strength, kgh +1.8 ± 6.6 −1.7 ± 6.5 −1.8 ± 11.6 +2.0 ± 6.0 −2.2 (−6.4;2.1) 0.311 −1.9 (−6.0;2.1) 0.346 6.2 (0.6;11.8) 0.030
4-m gait speed, m/s +0.13 ± 0.24* +0.08 ± 0.26 +0.08 ± 0.13*i +0.20 ± 0.24* −0.04 (−0.15;0.06) 0.440 −0.04 (−0.14;0.06) 0.476 0.14 (0.00;0.28) 0.045
400-m gait speed, m/s +0.04 ± 0.15 +0.07 ± 0.10* +0.07 ± 0.07*i +0.08 ± 0.15* +0.02 (−0.03;0.06) 0.445 +0.01 (−0.03;0.06) 0.554 NS  
Repeated chair stands, s −1.6 ± 2.1* −1.6 ± 1.7* −1.0 ± 2.7i −1.4 ± 2.7* −0.1 (−0.9;0.6) 0.703 −0.2 (−0.9;0.6) 0.643 NS  
  1. aData represent means ± SD using last observations carried forward; bEstimate of protein or exercise effect at week 10 using mixed linear model including time, sex, protein (high/normal), exercise (yes/no) and baseline value; cSignificance level of estimate of protein or exercise effect at week 10 using mixed linear model; d Estimate of interaction effect of protein*exercise at week 10 using mixed linear model including time, sex, protein (high/normal), exercise (yes/no), protein*exercise and baseline value only presented when the interaction effect was significant (P < 0.1). The effect of the combined protein-exercise intervention can be calculated by summating the beta’s of the protein effect, the exercise effect and the interaction protein*exercise effect; eSignificance level of the interaction effect of protein*exercise at week 10 using mixed linear model; f n = 31; g n = 21; hSum of maximum of left and right hand, n protein group = 20; i n = 24; * Significant mean change at week 10 within group using a paired t-test; NS not significant (P ≥ 0.1)