Skip to main content

Table 4 Mean change in outcomes within groups and differences between groups (Intention-to-Treat Populations) at 3 months

From: Feasibility and preliminary efficacy of the ‘HEYMAN’ healthy lifestyle program for young men: a pilot randomised controlled trial

  Mean change from baseline (95%CI)a    
Outcomesc Control group (n = 24) Intervention group (n = 26) Mean difference between groups (95%CI)b p-Value Effect size (Cohen’s d)
Physical activity (pedometer steps/day) 575.4 (−518.8, 1669.7) 1588.2 (534.7, 2641.6) 1012.7 (−506.2, 2531.6) 0.191 0.36
Diet quality (ARFS total score) 2.3 (−0.5, 5.2) 5.9 (3.1, 8.7) 3.6 (−0.4, 7.6) 0.081 0.48
Satisfaction with life scale (total score) 0.5 (−0.9, 2.0) 0.9 (−0.5, 2.4) 0.4 (−1.6, 2.5) 0.683 0.11
Fruit (serves/day) 0.3 (−0.1, 0.7) 0.5 (0.1, 0.9) 0.2 (−0.4, 0.8) 0.496 0.20
Vegetables (serves/day) −0.1 (−0.8, 0.6) 1.0 (0.3, 1.6) 1.1 (0.1, 2.0) <0.05 0.62
Energy intake (kJ/day) −68.9 (−1090.7, 953.0) −475.9 (−1470.6, 518.8) −407.0 (−1833.1, 1019.0) 0.576 0.16
Proportion of energy from ED-NP foods (%) −2.6 (−6.2, 1.1) −9.8 (−13.3, −6.2) −7.2 (−12.3, −2.1) <0.01 0.73
Proportion of energy from alcohol (%) −0.5 (−1.2, 0.3) 0.2 (−0.5, 1.0) 0.7 (−0.3, 1.8) 0.181 0.36
AUDIT-C (total score) −0.6 (−1.1, −0.1) 0.1 (−0.4, 0.6) 0.7 (−0.1, 1.4) 0.074 0.53
Salivary Cortisol (nmol/l) 2.7 (−0.4, 5.8) 0.6 (−2.4, 3.6) −2.1 (−6.4, 2.2) 0.341 0.27
Depression, Anxiety & Stress Scale (total score) −2.1 (−4.8, 0.5) −1.7 (−4.3, 0.9) 0.4 (−3.3, 4.1) 0.835 0.06
K-10 Psychological distress scale −1.7 (−3.0, −0.4) −2.6 (−3.8, −1.3) −0.9 (−2.6, 0.9) 0.331 0.28
Mental Health Continuum (total score) 4.0 (0.8, 7.1) 5.5 (2.4, 8.6) 1.5 (−2.9, 6.0) 0.505 0.19
Quality of Life, Enjoyment and Satisfaction (total score) 2.9 (0.1, 5.6) 6.0 (3.3, 8.7) 3.2 (−0.7, 7.0) 0.110 0.45
Weight (kg) 1.0 (0.1, 2.0) −0.6 (−1.5, 0.3) −1.6 (−3.0, −0.3) <0.05 0.63
Weight (%) 1.3 (0.2, 2.5) −0.6 (−1.7, 0.5) −2.0 (−3.5, −0.4) <0.05 0.67
Waist circumference (cm) 1.9 (0.7, 3.1) −1.2 (−2.4, −0.0) −3.1 (−4.8, −1.4) <0.001 0.89
BMI (Kg/m2) 0.3 (0.0, 0.6) −0.2 (−0.5, 0.0) −0.6 (−0.9, −0.2) <0.01 0.81
Skeletal muscle mass (kg) 0.1 (−0.5, 0.6) −0.0 (−0.6, 0.5) −0.1 (−0.9, 0.6) 0.755 0.07
Body fat mass (kg) 0.9 (0.1, 1.7) −0.5 (−1.3, 0.3) −1.4 (−2.5, −0.3) <0.05 0.67
MVPA (minutes/week) 26.1 (−58.0, 110.2) 154.1 (71.0, 237.1) 128.0 (9.8, 246.2) <0.05 0.58
Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 0.0 (−0.2, 0.3) −0.4 (−0.6, −0.2) −0.4 (−0.8, −0.1) <0.05 0.61
HDL-Cholesterol (mmol/l) 0.0 (−0.0, 0.1) 0.0 (−0.0, 0.1) 0.0 (−0.1, 0.1) 0.986 0.00
LDL- Cholesterol (mmol/l) 0.1 (−0.1, 0.3) −0.4 (−0.6, −0.1) −0.5 (−0.8, −0.2) <0.01 0.83
Triglyceride (mmol/l) −0.2 (−0.5, −0.0) −0.0 (−0.3, 0.2) 0.2 (−0.1, 0.6) 0.200 0.31
Total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio −0.0 (−0.2, 0.2) −0.3 (−0.5, −0.2) −0.3 (−0.6, −0.0) <0.05 0.60
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg) −2.6 (−5.5, 0.2) −2.4 (−5.1, 0.4) 0.3 (−3.7, 4.2) 0.898 0.04
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg) −1.1 (−2.9, 0.7) −1.7 (−3.5, 0.0) −0.6 (−3.1, 1.9) 0.629 0.13
Resting Heart rate (BPM) −2.1 (−6.1, 1.9) −0.1 (−4.0, 3.8) 2.0 (−3.6, 7.6) 0.480 0.20
Augmentation Index (%) −0.7 (−8.1, 6.6) −4.8 (−11.9, 2.3) −4.1 (−14.3, 6.2) 0.438 0.22
  1. ARFS Australian Recommended Food Score, ED-NP Energy-Dense, Nutrient poor, HDL High Density Lipoprotein, LDL Low Density Lipoprotein, MVPA Moderate to vigorous physical activity
  2. aTime differences were calculated as (3 months – baseline)
  3. bBetween group differences at 3 months
  4. cAdjusted for baseline values of BMI, physical activity steps and proportion of energy from Energy-dense, Nutrient poor (ED-NP) foods