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Table 2 Baseline characteristics of the HEYMAN intervention group and the waitlist control group

From: Feasibility and preliminary efficacy of the ‘HEYMAN’ healthy lifestyle program for young men: a pilot randomised controlled trial

Variable Intervention group (n = 26) Waitlist control group (n = 24) Total (n = 50)
Mean (SD) or % (n)
Age 22.4 (2.0) 21.9 (2.1) 22.1 (2.0)
Country of birth:
 Australia 76.9% (20) 83.3% (20) 80.0% (40)
 Other 23.1% (6) 16.7% (4) 20.0% (10)
Marital status
 Single/Divorced 88.5% (23) 79.2% (19) 84.0% (42)
 Married/De facto 11.5% (3) 20.8% (5) 16.0% (8)
Employment status
 Student (University) 65.4% (17) 58.3% (14) 62.0% (31)
 Student (Technical college) 3.8% (1) 0% (0) 2.0% (1)
 Employed 23.1% (6) 37.5% (9) 30.0% (15)
 Unemployed 7.7% (2) 4.2% (1) 6.0% (3)
Highest education level
 No formal qualification 0% (0) 4.2% (1) 2.0% (1)
 Higher School Certificate 53.8% (14) 66.7% (16) 60.0% (30)
 Trade/Apprenticeship 3.8% (1) 4.2% (1) 4.0% (2)
 Certificate/Diploma 3.8% (1) 8.3% (2) 6.0% (3)
 University degree or higher 38.5% (10) 16.7% (4) 28.0% (14)
Individual income ($AU)
 Lower ($0-$299 per week) 50.0% (13) 45.8% (11) 48.0% (24)
 Middle ($300-$999 per week) 38.5% (10) 45.8% (11) 42.0% (21)
 Higher ($1,000 or more per week) 11.5% (3) 4.2% (1) 8.0% (4)
 Did not want to answer 0% (0) 4.2% (1) 2.0% (1)
Physical activity
 Pedometer (means steps/day) 7722.7 (2514.7) 6171.1 (2067.6)* 6994.4 (2421.8)
 MVPA (minutes/week)a 137.2 (157.5) 108.8 (124.9) 123.3 (20.2)
Diet
 Diet quality (ARFS total score) 30.7 (8.6) 27.9 (11.2) 29.4 (9.9)
 Energy intake (kJ/day) 11090.6 (3413.4) 9982.6 (3168.9) 10558.8 (3312.2)
 Fruit (serves/day) 1.5 (1.2) 1.3 (1.1) 1.4 (1.2)
 Vegetables (serves/day) 3.5 (1.8) 3.5 (2.6) 3.5 (2.2)
 Proportion of energy from ED-NP foods (%) 40.2 (11.4) 41.8 (11.9) 41.0 (11.6)
 Proportion of energy from alcohol (%) 1.7 (1.6) 2.6 (3.0) 2.1 (2.4)
Psychological measures & well-being
 Satisfaction with life scale (total score) 23.8 (6.6) 22.5 (7.4) 23.2 (6.9)
 Salivary cortisol (nmol/l) 6.8 (4.8) 8.3 (4.8) 7.5 (4.8)
 Depression, Anxiety & Stress Scale (total score) 11.4 (8.1) 14.1 (11.1) 12.7 (9.7)
 K10 Psychological distress scale (total score) 18.5 (6.2) 21.0 (7.2) 19.7 (6.7)
 Mental Health continuum- short form (total score) 44.5 (13.2) 43.8 (10.2) 44.1 (11.7)
 Quality of life, enjoyment & satisfaction (total score) 49.2 (9.3) 49.3 (6.3) 49.2 (7.9)
Alcohol (AUDIT -C)
 Hazardous drinking 34.6% (9) 54.2% (13) 44.0% (22)
Weight status and body composition
 Current weight (kg) 83.6 (16.9) 80.9 (15.3) 82.3 (16.1)
 Current height (cm) 179.0 (6.6) 180.3 (6.5) 179.6 (6.5)
 Waist circumference 89.1 (12.0) 85.9 (11.9) 87.6 (12.0)
 BMI (kg/m2) 26.1 (5.0) 24.8 (4.1) 25.5 (4.6)
 Skeletal muscle mass (kg) 36.2 (5.8) 36.5 (4.6) 36.3 (5.2)
 Body fat mass (kg) 19.9 (10.0) 16.9 (9.6) 18.5 (9.8)
BMI category (kg/m2)
 Healthy weight 46.2% (12) 62.5% (15) 54.0% (27)
 Overweight 30.8% (8) 29.2% (7) 30.0% (15)
 Obese 23.1% (6) 8.3% (2) 16.0% (8)
Cholesterol (mmol/L)
 Total cholesterol 3.9 (0.8) 3.9 (0.7) 3.9 (0.7)
 HDL-cholesterol 1.2 (0.2) 1.3 (0.3) 1.3 (0.2)
 LDL- cholesterol 2.2 (0.6) 2.0 (0.6) 2.1 (0.6)
 Triglyceride 1.2 (0.6) 1.2 (0.7) 1.2 (0.6)
 Total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio 3.3 (0.9) 3.2 (1.1) 3.2 (1.0)
Blood pressure (mmHg)
 Systolic blood pressure 120.1 (9.0) 121.6 (8.3) 120.8 (8.7)
 Diastolic blood pressure 75.1 (4.7) 77.2 (5.6) 76.1 (5.2)
Resting heart rate (bpm) 69.7 (10.6) 73.8 (8.9) 71.6 (9.9)
Augmentation index (%) 40.3 (18.3) 34.6 (12.6) 37.6 (15.9)
  1. SD standard deviation; Significant differences between HEYMAN group and control assessed by t-test or chi-square analysis
  2. ARFS Australian Recommended Food Score, ED-NP Energy-Dense, Nutrient poor, HDL High Density Lipoprotein, LDL Low Density Lipoprotein, MVPA Moderate to vigorous physical activity
  3. *p < 0.05
  4. aone intervention participant removed as outlier as self- reported 7200 mins of MVPA per week