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Table 1 Characteristics of studies included in the meta-analysis on the association between fish intake and the risk of brain tumor

From: Fish intake and the risk of brain tumor: a meta-analysis with systematic review

Author Year [Ref] Duration Design Location No. of case Cohort size/contol Dietary assessment Pathology Coparsions RRs Adjusted variables Quality
Boeing H 1993 [21] 1987–1988 PCC German 115 418 Questionnaire-42 items Glioma Tertile 1 1.00 Age, gender, tobacco-smoking and alcohol consumption 6
Tertile 2 0.80 (0.40–1.50)
Tertile 3 0.70 (0.40–1.40)
Giles GG 1994 [24] 1987–1991 PCC Australia 409 409 Questionnaire-59 items Glioma Tertile 1 1.00 Alcohol and tobacco 6
Tertile 2 1.13 (0.82–1.55)
Tertile 3 1.01 (0.68–1.51)
Blowers L 1997 [22] 1986–1988 PCC USA 94 94 Questionnaire-43 items Glioma Quartile 1 1.00 Total grams of food and body mass 5
Quartile 2 0.40 (0.20–0.90)
Quartile 3 0.40 (0.20–1.00)
Quartile 4 0.40 (0.20–1.10)
Kaplan S 1997 [25] 1987–1991 HCC Israel 139 278 Semi-quantitative FFQ-100 items Brain tumor 0–22 g/day 1.00 age, sex, and ethnic origin, total energy intake 5
22.1–57 g/day 0.98 (0.60–1.39)
> = 57.1 g/day 0.92 (0.54–1.36)
Hu J 1999 [23] 1993–1995 HCC China 129 258 FFQ-57 items Brain tumor Quartile 1 1.00 income, education, cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, selected occupational exposures and total energy intake 5
Quartile 2 0.80 (0.50–1.30)
Quartile 3 0.36 (0.20–0.80)
Quartile 4 0.38 (0.20–0.90)
Chen H 2002 [26] 1988–1993 PCC USA 236 449 FFQ-48 items Glioma Quartile 1 1.00 Age, age squared, gender, total energy intake, respondent type, education level, family history, and farming experience. 6
Quartile 2 0.80 (0.50–1.30)
Quartile 3 0.70 (0.40–1.10)
Quartile 4 0.60 (0.30–1.20)
Hu J 2008 [27] 1994–1997 PCC Canada 1009 5039 FFQ-69 items Brain tumor Tertile 1 1.00 age group, province, education, body mass index, sex, alcohol use, pack-year smoking, total of vegetable and fruit intake, and total energy intake. 6
Tertile 2 0.90 (0.70–1.10)
Tertile 3 0.80 (0.60–1.00)
Terry MB 2009 [28] 1984–1991 PCC Europe, Northern American and Australia 1548 2486 Dietary questionnaire Brain tumor Quartile 1 1.00 Age, sex, center and the following food groups: leafy green vegetables, yellow–orange vegetables, cured meat, non-cured meat, fresh fish, dairy eggs, grains, and citrus fruit 6
Quartile 2 0.90 (0.80–1.10)
Quartile 3 0.90 (0.70–1.10)
Quartile 4 0.90 (0.70–1.10)
Daniel CR 2011 [29] 1995–2006 Cohort USA 749 492,186 FFQ-124 items Brain tumor Quintile 1 1.00 red meat intake, age, sex, education, marital status, family history of cancer, race, BMI, smoking status, frequency of vigorous physical activity, MHT in women, and intake of alcohol, fruit, vegetables, and total energy 7
Quintile 2 1.14 (0.91–1.45)
Quintile 3 1.04 (0.82–1.33)
Quintile 4 1.22 (0.97–1.55)
Quintile 5 1.05 (0.83–1.35)
  1. Abbreviations: FFQ food frequency questionnaire, PCC population-based case-control study, HCC hospital-based case-control study, BMI body mass index, MHT menopausal hormone therapy