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Fig. 3 | Nutrition Journal

Fig. 3

From: Masquelier’s grape seed extract: from basic flavonoid research to a well-characterized food supplement with health benefits

Fig. 3

a-c Biosynthesis of monomeric and oligomeric flavan-3-ols in plants (panel a-c). a Shikimate pathway starting from phosphoenol pyruvate (PEP) and D-erythrose-4-phosphate (D-erythrose-4-P) leading to the formation of 4-hydroxycinnamoyl alcohol, DHAP = 3-deoxy-D-arabinose-heptulosonic acid-7-phosphate, NAD = nicotine-adenine dinucleotide, NADPH = reduced nicotine-adenine dinucleotide phosphate; b Formation of monomeric flavan-3-ols (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin from 4-hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA and 3 molecules of malonyl-CoA, F3H = flavanone-3-hydroxylase, F3’H = flavanone-3’-hydroxylase, DFR = dihydroflavanol-4-reductase, ANS = anthocyanidin synthase, ANR = anthocyanidin reductase, LAR = leucoanthocyanidin reductase; c Polymerization of monomeric flavan-3-ols to oligomeric proanthocyanidins, PPO = polyphenol oxidase, ? indicates uncertainty in existence/role of (intermediate) compound/enzyme

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