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Table 1 Characteristics of the included studies

From: Dairy products intake and cancer mortality risk: a meta-analysis of 11 population-based cohort studies

Study Country of origin Original design Number of participants (Male/Female) Age (years) Follow-up (years) Dairy products type Group cut-off value
Bonthuis et al. (2010) [21] Australia Cohort 663/856 25–78 14.4 Total dairy Mean: (163; 339; 628) g/day
Breslow et al. (2000) [22] America Cohort 8363/11641 18–87 8.5 Total dairy (0–3.0; 3.0–7.0; 7.0–10.0; >10.0) servings/day
Chow et al. (1992) [23] America Cohort 17633/0 >35 20 (maximum) Total dairy (<46; 46–95; 96–142; >142) servings/month
Kelemen et al. (2005) [24] America Cohort 0/29017 55–69 15 Total dairy Median: (1.0; 1.13; 1.24; 1.34; 1.45) servings/1000 kcal
Kojima et al. (2004) [25] Japan Cohort 45181/62643 40–79 9.9 Milk (seldom; 0.5–4 servings/week; everyday)
Yogurt (seldom; 1–2 servings/month; 1–7 servings/week)
Cheese (seldom; 1–2 servings/month; 1–7 servings/week)
Butter (seldom; 1–2 servings/month; 1–7 servings/week)
Matsumoto et al. (2007) [26] Japan Cohort 4531/7075 19–93 9.2 Milk, butter and yogurt (not everyday; everyday)
Park et al. (2007) [27] America Cohort 293888/0 50–71 6 (maximum) Whole milk (0; 0–0.5; 0.5–1; 1–2; > = 2) servings/day
Low-fat milk (0; 0–0.5; 0.5–1; 1–2; > = 2) servings/day
Skim milk (0; 0–0.5; 0.5-1; 1–2; > = 2) servings/day
Cheese (<0.1; 0.1–0.25; 0.25–0.5; 0.5–0.75; > = 0.75) servings/day
Yogurt (0; 0–0.5; > = 0.5) servings/day
Praagman et al. (2015) [28] Europe Cohort 8901/25508 20–70 15 Fermented dairy Median: (8.8; 52.2; 128; 351) g/day
Yogurt Median: (3.8; 26.2; 62.9; 144.5) g/day
Cheese Median: (6.6; 19.6; 31.8; 53.2) g/day
Sharma et al. (2013) [29] Multiethnic Cohort 70333/76056 45–75 NA Total dairy (<=0.5; 0.6–1.0; 1.1–1.6; >1.6) servings/day
Song et al. (2013) [30] America Cohort 21660/0 40–84 28 (maximum) Total dairy (<=0.5; 0.5–1.0; 1.0–1.5; 1.5–2.5; >2.5) servings/day
Whole milk (<=1; 2–6; > = 7) servings/week
Skim/low-fat milk (<=1; 2–6; > = 7) servings/week
Wang et al. (2015) [31] Japan Cohort 39639/55341 40–79 19 Milk (0; 1–2 servings/month; 1–2 servings/week; 3–4 servings/week; everyday)
Study Cancer type Endpoints Adjusted factors Quality assessment
Bonthuis et al. (2010) [21] All cancer All cancer death Age, sex, total energy intake, body mass index, alcohol intake, school leaving age, physical activity level, pack years of smoking, dietary supplement use, b-carotene treatment during trial and presence of any medical condition 9
Breslow et al. (2000) [22] Lung cancer Lung cancer death Age, sex, smoking duration and packs per day smoked 8
Chow et al. (1992) [23] Lung cancer Lung cancer death Age, smoking status and industry/occupation 8
Kelemen et al. (2005) [24] All cancer All cancer death Age, total energy, carbohydrate, saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, monounsaturated fat, trans-fat total fiber, dietary cholesterol, dietary methionine, alcohol, smoking, activity level, body mass index, history of hypertension, postmenopausal hormone use, multivitamin use, vitamin E supplement use, education and family history of cancer 6
Kojima et al. (2004) [25] Colon and rectal cancer Colon and rectal cancer death Age, family history of colorectal cancer, body mass index, frequency of alcohol intake, current smoking status, walking time per day, and educational level 9
Matsumoto et al. (2007) [26] Colon, stomach, lung, liver, pancreatic, bile duct and blood cancer Colon, stomach, lung, liver, pancreatic, bile duct and blood cancer death Age and sex 9
Park et al. (2007) [27] Prostate cancer Prostate cancer death and advanced prostate cancer Age, race, education, marital status, body mass index, vigorous physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, history of diabetes, family history of prostate cancer, screening for prostate cancer by use of prostate-specific antigen, intakes of tomatoes, red meat, fish, vitamin E, alpha-linolenic acid and total energy 8
Praagman et al. (2015) [28] All cancer All cancer death Age, sex, total energy intake, smoking habit, body mass index, physical activity, education level, hypertension at baseline, intakes of alcohol and energy-adjusted intakes of fruit and vegetables 9
Sharma et al. (2013) [29] All cancer All cancer death Time on study, years of education, energy intake, smoking behaviors, body mass index, physical activity, history of diabetes, alcohol intake, history of hormone replacement therapy, and history of oophorectomy 8
Song et al. (2013) [30] Prostate cancer Prostate cancer death Age, cigarette smoking, vigorous exercise, alcohol intake, race, body mass index, baseline diabetes status, red meat consumption, total energy intake from recorded food items, assignment in the original aspirin trial and assignment in the original β-carotene trial. In addition, the models for whole milk and skim/low-fat milk were mutually adjusted for each other 8
Wang et al. (2015) [31] All cancer All cancer death Age categories, smoking status, drinking status, physical activity, sleeping duration, body mass index, education level, participation in health checkups, green-leafy vegetable intake, and history of hypertension, diabetes and liver disease 9