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Table 3 Associations between levels of vitamin B12, folate, vitamin D and homocysteine and measures of muscle strength, gait, balance and neuropathy

From: Serum folate predicts muscle strength: a pilot cross-sectional study of the association between serum vitamin levels and muscle strength and gait measures in patients >65 years old with diabetes mellitus in a primary care setting

  Vitamin B12 deficiency (<150 pmol/l) (n = 24; men = 11; women = 13) Vitamin B12 normal (≥150 pmol/l) (n = 32; men = 17; women = 15) P value Folate deficiency (<13.5 nmol/l) (n = 11; men = 4; women = 7) Folate normal (≥13.5 nmol/l) (n = 45; men = 24; women = 21 P value 25-OH-vitamin D deficiency (<49.9 nmol/l) (n = 14; men = 5; women = 9) 25-OH-vitamin D normal (≥49.9 nmol/l) (n = 42; men = 23; women = 19) P value Hyperhomo-cysteinaemia (≥15.0 μmol/l) (n = 29; men = 15; women = 14) Homocysteine normal (<15.0 μmol/l) (n = 27; men = 13; women = 14) P value
Average dominant-leg strength (kgf) (both genders) 21.50 ± 8.40 22.70 ± 11.02 ns 17.22 ± 11.6 23.4 ± 9.2 ns, (0.06) 20.36 ± 7.05 22.78 ± 10.7 ns 20.22 ± 6.21 24.29 ± 12.55 ns
Average non-dominant-leg strength (kgf) (both genders) 21.64 ± 12.0 21.84 ± 10.60 ns 19.39 ± 14.58 22.33 ± 10.19 ns 18.93 ± 7.66 22.70 ± 11.95 ns 19.92 ± 6.51 23.72 ± 14.39 ns
Average leg strength (kgf) (men) 26.21 ± 2.78 27.16 ± 11.48 ns 25.76 ± 19.20 26.96 ± 10.7 ns 21.7 ± 10.5 27.90 ± 11.96 ns 22.31 ± 6.43 31.96 ± 14.4 <0.05
Average leg strength (kgf) (women) 17.63 ± 4.36 16.72 ± 5.31 ns 14.04 ± 5.14 18.18 ± 4.36 <0.05 18.49 ± 4.79 16.50 ± 4.83 ns 17.67 ± 4.19 16.62 ± 5.49 ns
Average leg strength/BMI (m2) (men) 1.09 ± 0.44 1.09 ± 0.49 ns 0.95 ± 0.61 1.11 ± 0.45 ns 0.92 ± 0.42 1.13 ± 0.47 ns 0.91 ± 0.24 1.30 ± 0.57 <0.05
Average leg strength/BMI (m2) (women) 0.74 ± 0.24 0.72 ± 0.25 ns 0.54 ± 0.22 0.79 ± 0.22 <0.05 0.73 ± 0.21 0.73 ± 0.26 ns 0.74 ± 0.23 0.72 ± 0.27 ns
Average dominant hand-grip strength (kgf) (both genders) 20.38 ± 8.45 23.23 ± 7.70 ns 19.99 ± 10.84 22.50 ± 7.32 ns 21.02 ± 8.69 22.34 ± 7.94 ns 20.05 ± 5.26 24.11 ± 9.97 ns, (0.06)
Average non-dominant hand-grip strength (kgf) (both genders) 19.32 ± 7.64 20.10 ± 7.54 ns 18.76 ± 10.60 20.01 ± 6.70 ns 20.26 ± 7.26 19.60 ± 7.68 ns 18.37 ± 5.04 21.27 ± 9.37 ns
Average grip strength (kgf) (men) 23.52 ± 9.67 26.86 ± 6.24 ns 30.39 ± 10.38 24.74 ± 7.23 ns 28.43 ± 7.06 24.92 ± 7.93 ns 21.34 ± 4.79 30.40 ± 7.85 <0.001
Average grip strength (kgf) (women) 16.75 ± 3.91 15.78 ± 2.69 ns 13.07 ± 2.56 17.28 ± 2.82 <0.01 16.31 ± 3.62 16.19 ± 3.22 ns 16.93 ± 3.62 15.53 ± 2.87 ns
Average grip strength/BMI (m2) (men) 0.97 ± 0.33 1.08 ± 0.34 ns 1.12 ± 0.29 1.03 ± 0.34 ns 1.18 ± 0.30 1.00 ± 0.34 ns 0.87 ± 0.22 1.24 ± 0.33 <0.01
Average grip strength/BMI (m2) (women) 0.71 ± 0.24 0.67 ± 0.14 ns 0.51 ± 0.14 0.75 ± 0.17 <0.01 0.64 ± 0.16 0.71 ± 0.21 ns 0.67 ± 0.15 0.72 ± 0.23 ns
Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (history: maximum severity of 13 points) 2.04 ± 1.71) 1.72 ± 1.35 ns 2.18 ± 1.66 1.78 ± 1.48 ns 1.79 ± 1.12 1.88 ± 1.62 ns 2.00 ± 1.65 1.70 ± 1.35 ns
Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument (physical assessment: maximum severity of 10 points) 2.10 ± 1.62) 2.73 ± 1.56 ns 3.27 ± 1.49 2.27 ± 1.58 ns, (0.06) 2.57 ± 1.33 2.43 ± 1.90 ns 2.19 ± 1.52 2.76 ± 1.66 ns
Neurothesiometer VPT score right foot (V) 13.73 ± 6.01 11.8 ± 4.39 ns 15.11 ± 5.90 12.02 ± 4.88 ns 12.86 ± 4.87 12.55 ± 5.34 ns 14.18 ± 6.21 10.96 ± 3.13 <0.05
Neurothesiometer VPT score left foot (V) 15.50 ± 8.44 13.09 ± 6.42 ns 17.30 ± 8.17 13.34 ± 7.05 ns 15.32 ± 7.25 13.72 ± 7.46 ns 14.93 ± 8.08) 13.26 ± 6.59) ns
Neurothesiometer VPT score average (V) 14.61 ± 6.95 12.44 ± 4.84 ns 16.21 ± 6.34 12.68 ± 5.61 ns 14.09 ± 5.77 13.14 ± 5.97 ns 14.55 ± 6.71) 12.11 ± 4.63) ns
History of having fallen at least once in the preceding year 7 (Yes) 7 (Yes) ns 5 (Yes) 9 (Yes) ns 4 (Yes) 10 (Yes) ns 9 (Yes) 5 (Yes) ns
17 (No) 25 (No) 6 (No) 36 (No) 10 (No) 32 (No) 20 (No) 22 (No)
29 % (Yes) 22 % (Yes) 45 % (Yes) 20 % (Yes) 29 % (Yes) 24 % (Yes) 31 % (Yes) 19 % (Yes)
Barthel Index of Activity of Daily Living (maximum score of 20) 19.62 ± 1.05 19.78 ± 0.49 ns 19.09 ± 1.37 19.87 ± 0.46 <0.01 19.64 ± 0.84 19.74 ± 0.77 ns 19.82 ± 0.48) 19.62 ± 0.98 ns
3 (<20) 6 (<20) 5 (<20) 4 (<20) <0.05 (Fish) 3 (<20) 6 (<20) 5 (<20) 4 (<20)
21 (=20) 26 (=20) 6 (=20) 41 (=20) 11 (=20) 36 (=20) 24 (=20) 23 (=20)
13 % (<20) 19 % (<20) 45 % (<20) 9 % (<20) 21 % (<20) 14 % (<20) 17 % (<20) 15 % (<20)
Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (maximum score of 8) 7 (<8) 4 (<8) ns 5 (<8) 6 (<8) <0.05 (Chi) 4 (<8) 7 (<8) ns 9 (<8) 2 (<8) <0.05 (Fish)
17 (=8) 28 (=8) 6 (=8) 39 (=8) <0.05 (Fish) 10 (=8) 35 (=8) 20 (=8) 25 (=8)
29 % (<8) 14 % (<8) 45 % (<8) 13 % (<8)   29 % (<8) 17 % (<8) 31 % (<8) 7 % (<8)
Performance-Oriented Mobility Assessment–Balance (POMA B) (maximum score of 16) 6 (<16) 10 (<16) ns 6 (<16) 10 (<16) <0.05 (Chi) 6 (<16) 10 (<16) ns 9 (<16) 7 (<16) ns
18 (=16) 22 (=16) 5 (=16) 35 (=16) ns, (Fish) 8 (=16) 32 (=16) 20 (=16) 20 (=16)
25 % (<16) 31 % (<16) 55 % (<16) 22 % (<16) 43 % (<16) 24 % (<16) 31 % (<16) 26 % (<16)
Performance-Oriented Mobility Assessment–Gait (POMA G) (maximum score of 12) 8 (<12) 9 (<12) ns 6 (<12) 11 (<12) ns, (0.05),(Chi) 5 (<12) 12 (<12) ns 8 (<12) 9 (<12) ns
16 (=12) 23 (=12) 5 (=12) 34 (=12) ns, (Fish) 9 (=12) 30 (=12) 19 (=12) 20 (=12)
33 % (<12) 28 % (<12) 55 % (<12) 24 % (<12) 36 % (<12) 29 % (<12) 30 % (<12) 31 % (<12)
Timed up-and-go test (s) (average of two trials) (both genders) 11.02 ± 5.02 10.01 ± 4.16 ns 14.17 ± 6.29 9.53 ± 3.52 <0.01 11.63 ± 6.37 10.05 ± 3.74 ns 10.70 ± 4.66 10.17 ± 4.45 ns
Timed up-and-go test (s) (average of two trials) (men) 9.46 ± 2.67 9.56 ± 2.84 ns 11.59 ± 3.86 9.18 ± 2.43 ns 9.91 ± 3.98 9.44 ± 2.48 ns 9.52 ± 2.40 9.54 ± 3.16 ns
Timed up-and-go test (s) (average of two trials) (women) 12.33 ± 6.19 10.52 ± 5.34 ns 15.65 ± 7.17 9.93 ± 4.48 <0.05 12.58 ± 7.43 10.78 ± 4.83 ns 11.97 ± 6.11 10.75 ± 5.45 ns
6-m fast-gait speed (m/s) (average of two trials) (both genders) 1.07 ± 0.31 1.12 ± 0.26 ns 0.88 ± 0.30 1.15 ± 0.25 <0.01 1.03 ± 0.32 1.12 ± 0.27 ns 1.07 ± 0.28 1.12 ± 0.28 ns
6-m fast-gait speed (m/s) (average of two trials) (men) 1.19 ± 0.29 1.16 ± 0.27 ns 1.00 ± 0.28 1.20 ± 0.27 ns 1.10 ± 0.28 1.19 ± 0.28 ns 1.17 ± 0.25 1.17 ± 0.31 ns
6-m fast-gait speed (m/s) (average of two trials) (women) 0.97 ± 0.29 1.06 ± 0.26 ns 0.81 ± 0.31 1.09 ± 0.23 <0.05 1.00 ± 0.34 1.03 ± 0.24 ns 0.97 ± 0.29 1.07 ± 0.26 ns
  1. Values are the mean ± SD or number (%) unless otherwise indicated
  2. VPT vibration perception threshold
  3. Chi Chi-square test
  4. Fish Fisher’s exact test
  5. ns Not statistically significant