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Table 3 The results of multiple regression or logistic regression analysis to examine the association between awareness on nutrition labelling and outcome variables

From: Is nutritional labeling associated with individual health? The effects of labeling-based awareness on dyslipidemia risk in a South Korean population

Variables Total cholesterol (mg/dL) Triglyceride (mg/dL) HDL cholesterol (mg/dL) LDL cholesterol (mg/dL) Dyslipidemia
β SE P-value β SE P-value β SE P-value β SE P-value OR 95 % CI P-value
Awareness on nutrition labelling
 Checks nutrition facts and makes labeling-dependent purchase decisions 0.837 1.056 0.4280 −11.803 3.061 0.0001 1.259 0.357 0.0004 1.938 0.994 0.0515 0.806 0.709 0.917 0.0011
 Checks nutrition facts but does not make labeling-dependent purchase decisions/Aware of nutrition facts but does not check them when making food purchase decisions 2.350 0.783 0.0028 −7.170 2.725 0.0086 0.799 0.249 0.0014 2.985 0.774 0.0001 0.919 0.828 1.020 0.1110
 Unaware of nutrition facts Ref - - Ref - - Ref - - Ref - - 1.000 - - -
Sex
 Male −5.197 0.833 <.0001 27.026 2.565 <.0001 −6.089 0.279 <.0001 −4.513 0.768 <.0001 1.395 1.265 1.537 <.0001
 Female Ref - - Ref - - Ref - - Ref - - 1.000 - - -
Age (years)
 30–39 −10.395 1.105 <.0001 −6.634 3.267 0.0426 1.822 0.372 <.0001 −10.890 1.056 <.0001 0.497 0.432 0.572 <.0001
 40-49 −5.299 1.035 <.0001 6.350 3.465 0.0672 0.706 0.367 0.0544 −7.275 1.001 <.0001 0.678 0.596 0.772 <.0001
 50–59 3.804 0.985 0.0001 11.906 3.065 0.0001 1.012 0.322 0.0018 0.411 0.940 0.6623 1.168 1.025 1.331 0.0198
 60+ Ref - - Ref - - Ref - - Ref - - 1.000 - - -
Educational level
 Under high school graduation −2.553 1.535 0.0966 1.013 4.692 0.8291 0.221 0.548 0.6871 −2.976 1.456 0.0413 0.983 0.801 1.206 0.8674
 Bachelor’s degree −2.206 1.508 0.1438 −3.499 4.603 0.4474 0.206 0.537 0.7017 −1.712 1.417 0.2273 0.954 0.776 1.173 0.6558
 Master’s degree or above Ref - - Ref - - Ref - - Ref - - 1.000 - - -
Economic activity
 Unemployed 0.749 0.794 0.3461 4.398 2.187 0.0446 −0.464 0.251 0.0653 0.333 0.729 0.6480 1.153 1.049 1.267 0.0031
 Employed Ref - - Ref - - Ref - - Ref - - 1.000 - - -
Household income
 Low 0.258 1.039 0.8042 2.602 3.436 0.4491 −0.585 0.389 0.1331 0.323 1.031 0.7544 1.076 0.946 1.223 0.2677
 Mid-low −0.302 0.876 0.7302 −0.916 3.057 0.7644 −0.196 0.303 0.5180 0.077 0.805 0.9237 0.926 0.829 1.035 0.1771
 Mid-high 0.064 0.848 0.9399 −2.031 2.702 0.4524 0.012 0.269 0.9648 0.458 0.808 0.5705 0.953 0.858 1.059 0.3729
 High Ref - - Ref - - Ref - - Ref - - 1.000 - - -
BMI
 <23 −13.918 0.749 <.0001 −55.011 2.572 <.0001 6.944 0.253 <.0001 −9.860 0.725 <.0001 0.306 0.280 0.335 <.0001
 23–25 −7.322 0.869 <.0001 −27.998 3.190 <.0001 2.754 0.265 <.0001 −4.477 0.795 <.0001 0.566 0.509 0.629 <.0001
 >25 Ref - - Ref - - Ref - - Ref - - 1.000 - - -
Aerobic exercise habits
 Yes Ref - - Ref - - Ref - - Ref - - 1.000 - - -
 No 0.783 0.752 0.2981 10.527 2.478 <.0001 −1.456 0.255 <.0001 0.134 0.717 0.8517 1.090 0.992 1.199 0.0731
Smoking status
 Non-smoker Ref - - Ref - - Ref - - Ref - - 1.000 - - -
 Smoker 3.364 0.916 0.0003 26.004 3.516 <.0001 −1.325 0.301 <.0001 −0.512 0.910 0.5739 1.445 1.292 1.616 <.0001
High risk drinking
 No Ref - - Ref - - Ref - - Ref - - 1.000 - - -
 Yes 2.614 1.123 0.0202 41.059 5.895 <.0001 4.954 0.366 <.0001 −10.553 1.190 <.0001 1.229 1.066 1.416 0.0046
Family history for hyperlipidemia
 No Ref - - Ref - - Ref - - Ref - - 1.000 - - -
 Yes 6.016 1.501 <.0001 5.369 4.264 0.2083 0.477 0.531 0.3687 4.465 1.380 0.0013 1.307 1.096 1.560 0.0028
Survey year
 2010 0.362 1.093 0.7404 −9.251 3.187 0.0038 1.093 0.354 0.0021 1.120 1.007 0.2663 0.998 0.878 1.134 0.9711
 2011 1.526 1.090 0.1619 −6.695 3.336 0.0451 1.137 0.349 0.0012 1.728 1.003 0.0854 1.000 0.876 1.142 0.9992
 2012 1.877 1.114 0.0922 −5.973 3.523 0.0904 −0.092 0.389 0.8141 3.163 1.055 0.0028 1.117 0.975 1.278 0.1106
 2013 −0.479 1.062 0.6523 −4.680 3.494 0.1807 0.513 0.353 0.1464 −0.056 1.028 0.9567 1.030 0.900 1.179 0.6653
 2014 Ref - - Ref - - Ref - - Ref - - 1.000 - - -
Stress awareness
 Low Ref - - Ref - - Ref - - Ref - - 1.000 - - -
 High 0.443 0.757 0.5589 2.219 2.994 0.4588 0.281 0.263 0.2850 −0.282 0.732 0.6998 0.994 0.907 1.089 0.8906
Subjective health status
 Good 0.979 1.014 0.3347 −8.120 3.109 0.0092 1.710 0.330 <.0001 0.894 0.853 0.2949 0.942 0.829 1.070 0.3556
 Normal 0.972 0.978 0.3209 −2.164 2.945 0.4627 0.761 0.299 0.0109 0.643 0.855 0.4521 1.056 0.937 1.190 0.3686
 Bad Ref - - Ref - - Ref - - Ref - - 1.000 - - -
Average amount of daily fat intake 0.040 0.011 0.0002 −0.030 0.036 0.4076 0.008 0.003 0.0139 0.038 0.010 0.0002 1.000 0.999 1.001 0.9479
The frequency of eating out
 Less than four times a week Ref - - Ref - - Ref - - Ref - - 1.000 - - -
 More than five times a week 1.374 0.801 0.0867 −2.755 2.835 0.3314 0.074 0.258 0.7748 1.851 0.794 0.0199 1.043 0.943 1.153 0.4132