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Table 2 The association between awareness on nutrition labelling and 4 indicators related to dyslipidemia or diagnosis of dyslipidemia

From: Is nutritional labeling associated with individual health? The effects of labeling-based awareness on dyslipidemia risk in a South Korean population

Variables Total cholesterol (mg/dL) Triglyceride (mg/dL) HDL cholesterol (mg/dL) LDL cholesterol (mg/dL) Dyslipidemia P-value
Positive Negative
Mean SD P-value Mean SD P-value Mean SD P-value Mean SD P-value N % N %
Awareness regarding nutrition labelling
 Checks nutrition facts and makes labeling-dependent purchase decisions 188.53 34.01 0.0399 111.89 79.41 <.0001 55.48 12.75 <.0001 110.68 30.10 0.0006 1,536 48.42 1,636 51.58 <.0001
 Checks nutrition facts but does not make labeling-dependent purchase decisions/Aware of nutrition facts but does not check them when making food purchase decisions 191.32 34.24   129.82 102.12   52.80 12.52   112.55 31.57   4,778 57.28 3,563 42.72  
 Unaware of nutrition facts 192.54 36.35   144.53 109.29   50.13 12.25   113.50 33.74   4,108 66.54 2,066 33.46  
Sex
 Male 189.06 34.48 <.0001 155.43 123.33 <.0001 48.90 11.82 <.0001 109.08 33.39 <.0001 4,777 64.88 2,586 35.12 <.0001
 Female 192.80 35.24   114.85 78.70   54.81 12.58   115.02 30.92   5,645 54.68 4,679 45.32  
Age (years)
 30–39 183.28 33.23 <.0001 116.04 97.17 <.0001 54.78 12.67 <.0001 105.30 29.70 <.0001 1,816 44.16 2,296 55.84 <.0001
 40–49 190.31 33.50   130.36 113.12   53.24 12.41   110.99 31.25   2,151 54.65 1,785 45.35  
 50–59 199.50 34.47   142.52 109.54   52.56 12.75   118.43 33.11   2,595 68.76 1,179 31.24  
 60+ 192.14 36.17   136.74 89.46   49.90 12.18   114.89 32.61   3,860 65.81 2,005 34.19  
Educational level
 Under high school graduation 192.88 35.56 0.1972 136.69 104.97 0.0105 51.73 12.58 0.1640 113.82 33.02 0.0338 7,343 62.92 4,327 37.08 <.0001
 Bachelor’s degree 187.73 33.61   121.24 94.43   53.75 12.57   109.74 30.09   2,679 50.64 2,611 49.36  
 Master’s degree or above 190.55 33.42   128.79 93.64   52.14 12.55   112.66 30.07   400 55.02 327 44.98  
Economic activity
 Unemployed 191.26 36.26 0.5049 125.39 87.09 0.0150 52.62 12.87 0.0188 113.57 32.13 0.1766 4,024 58.60 2,843 41.40 0.4833
 Employed 191.23 34.14   135.77 109.81   52.17 12.44   111.90 32.08   6,398 59.13 4,422 40.87  
Household income
 Low 191.86 36.26 0.5209 140.45 96.60 0.2011 50.15 12.60 0.0143 113.62 33.65 0.3923 2,249 66.52 1,132 33.48 <.0001
 Mid-low 191.04 35.62   133.31 110.04   52.20 12.58   112.18 32.03   2,634 58.65 1,857 41.35  
 Mid-high 190.33 34.21   128.97 101.42   52.99 12.49   111.55 32.33   2,750 55.86 2,173 44.14  
 High 191.92 34.22   127.06 97.02   53.36 12.59   113.15 30.80   2,789 57.01 2,103 42.99  
BMI
 <23 185.60 33.75 <.0001 106.94 79.58 <.0001 55.72 13.07 <.0001 108.50 30.34 <.0001 3,666 46.41 4,233 53.59 <.0001
 23–25 192.73 34.30   136.59 100.29   51.06 11.92   114.35 31.64   2,683 63.31 1,555 36.69  
 >25 198.14 35.85   163.34 119.96   48.53 11.11   116.93 34.14   4,073 73.39 1,477 26.61  
Aerobic exercise habits
 Yes 190.61 33.52 0.4412 126.55 96.47 <.0001 53.42 12.90 <.0001 111.87 31.27 0.9488 2,425 56.86 1,840 43.14 0.0016
 No 191.45 35.43   133.39 103.28   52.01 12.50   112.76 32.36   7,997 59.58 5,425 40.42  
Smoking status
 Non-smoker 191.20 34.87 <.0001 123.16 89.01 <.0001 52.98 12.51 <.0001 113.59 31.11 0.2760 8,152 57.01 6,148 42.99 <.0001
 Smoker 191.41 35.42   167.97 137.71   49.67 12.67   108.15 35.69   2,270 67.02 1,117 32.98  
High risk drinking
 No 190.96 34.90 <.0001 125.77 89.46 <.0001 52.13 12.44 <.0001 113.68 31.34 <.0001 9,254 58.00 6,702 42.00 <.0001
 Yes 193.88 35.57   186.79 169.14   54.38 13.89   102.14 36.89   1,168 67.48 563 32.52  
Family history for hyperlipidemia
 No 191.12 34.91 <.0001 132.05 102.08 0.1179 52.24 12.58 0.1999 112.46 32.11 0.0020 9,995 59.04 6,934 40.96 0.1381
 Yes 194.05 36.41   124.93 92.97   54.65 13.00   114.41 32.06   427 56.33 331 43.67  
Survey year
 2010 190.41 35.86 0.0245 130.30 98.76 0.0539 52.71 12.77 <.0001 111.64 32.60 0.0032 2,294 57.84 1,672 42.16 0.0189
 2011 192.84 36.05   132.72 106.89   52.93 12.80   113.36 32.66   2,352 59.39 1,608 40.61  
 2012 191.79 34.76   130.01 98.86   51.46 12.45   114.33 31.93   2,187 60.77 1,412 39.23  
 2013 190.80 34.06   133.48 106.04   52.15 12.30   111.95 32.09   1,879 59.35 1,287 40.65  
 2014 190.05 33.47   132.59 97.21   52.36 12.62   111.17 30.81   1,710 57.08 1,286 42.92  
Stress awareness
 Low 191.18 34.87 0.1373 131.38 99.14 0.3396 52.23 12.58 0.9746 112.67 32.04 0.2953 8,020 59.25 5,517 40.75 0.1178
 High 191.46 35.33   132.92 109.72   52.73 12.69   112.14 32.32   2,402 57.88 1,748 42.12  
Subjective health status
 Good 191.50 34.39 0.0008 126.37 95.89 0.0031 53.29 12.74 <.0001 112.93 31.31 0.0005 3,316 57.01 2,501 42.99 <.0001
 Normal 191.20 34.43   133.28 106.44   52.25 12.57   112.30 32.02   5,173 59.20 3,565 40.80  
 Bad 190.88 37.50   137.42 98.28   50.86 12.33   112.54 33.77   1,933 61.72 1,199 38.28  
The frequency of eating out
 Less than four times a week 191.43 35.53 0.0007 128.23 96.74 0.8791 52.55 12.76 0.9080 113.24 32.19 0.0001 7,138 58.92 4,977 41.08 0.9811
 More than five times a week 190.83 33.75   139.38 111.40   51.90 12.28   111.05 31.86   3,284 58.94 2,288 41.06  
Total 191.243 34.976   131.74 101.717   52.347 12.611   112.548 32.105   10,422 58.92 7,265 41.08