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Table 5 Association of liver enzyme function with alcohol consumption level (Deciles and g/day) by three different methods of alcohol intake estimation among female adults. NHANES 2001–2010a

From: Assessing alcohol intake & its dose-dependent effects on liver enzymes by 24-h recall and questionnaire using NHANES 2001-2010 data

   24-h recall Usual intake by NCI method Alcohol intake questionnaire
Regression coefficientb
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), U/L
  N 10,387 10,387 9498
 By Decile Linear 36.96/−0.21 38.96/−0.25 38.16/−0.54*
Curvilinear ns 32.91/1.73/−0.17# ns
 By g/day Linear 37.31/−0.33 37.79/−0.42 37.73/−0.94*
Curvilinear ns ns 41.56/−3.92/0.46#
Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), U/L
  N 10,359 10,359 9473
 By Decile Linear 10.77/0.13 8.58/0.28* 10.55/0.004
Curvilinear ns ns ns
 By g/day Linear 10.57/0.19 10.09/0.35 10.05/0.27
Curvilinear ns ns ns
Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), U/L
  N 10,358 10,358 9472
 By Decile Linear 18.10/0.34* 15.88/0.28* 16.62/0.21*
Curvilinear ns ns 17.15/−0.29/0.06#
 By g/day Linear 17.58/0.50* 16.49/0.83* 15.78/0.88*
Curvilinear ns ns ns
Gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), U/L
  N 10,387 10,387 9498
 By Decile Linear 0.04/0.99* −7.01/0.89* −2.16/0.67*
Curvilinear ns ns −0.44/−0.96/0.19#
 By g/day Linear −1.49/1.47* −4.76/2.47* −4.73/2.77*
Curvilinear ns ns ns
Bilirubin (mg/dl)
  N 10,382 10,382 9493
 By Decile Linear 0.83/0.005* 0.81/0.002 0.81/0.01*
Curvilinear ns 0.86/−0.02/0.001# ns
 By g/day Linear 0.82/0.01* 0.81/0.01 0.81/0.01*
Curvilinear ns 0.73/0.06/−0.01# 0.78/0.04/−0.004#
  1. aRegression analyses examining linear and/or quadratic effect of alcohol intake conducted with the following covariates: age, race/ethnicity, current smoking status (yes/no), poverty income ratio, physical activity level (sedentary, moderate, or vigorous based on feedback on questions on activity), energy intake, and body mass index. bβ01 for Linear Trend and β012 for Curvilinear Trend (β0: intercept, β1: linear regression coefficient, and β2: curvilinear regression coefficient); * Significant Linear Trend at P < 0.01; # Significant Curvilinear Trend at P < 0.01; N Sample Size; ns Non-significant Curvilinear Trend