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Table 4 Association of liver enzyme function with alcohol consumption level (Deciles and g/day) by three different methods of alcohol intake estimation among male adults. NHANES 2001–2010a

From: Assessing alcohol intake & its dose-dependent effects on liver enzymes by 24-h recall and questionnaire using NHANES 2001-2010 data

   24-h recall Usual intake by NCI method Alcohol intake questionnaire
Regression coefficientb
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), U/L
  N 10,858 10,858 10,025
 By Decile Linear 66.64/−0.25 68.96/−0.37* 65.82/−0.29*
Curvilinear 67.25/−1.24/0.12# ns ns
 By g/day Linear 67.20/−0.40* 68.07/−0.53* 65.67/−0.40
Curvilinear ns ns ns
Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), U/L
  N 10,820 10,820 9987
 By Decile Linear 15.08/0.36* 12.14/0.47* 14.24/0.52*
Curvilinear ns ns ns
 By g/day Linear 14.46/0.45* 13.25/0.68* 13.94/0.93*
Curvilinear 16.10/−1.14/0.21# ns ns
Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), U/L
  N 10,819 10,819 9986
 By Decile Linear 22.45/0.48* 19.35/0.50* 21.06/0.45*
Curvilinear ns 23.03/−0.75/0.11# 21.92/−0.35/0.09#
 By g/day Linear 21.66/0.57* 20.30/0.80* 20.47/0.94*
Curvilinear 23.50/−1.22/0.23# 23.07/−0.75/0.18# ns
Gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), U/L
  N 10,858 10,858 10,025
 By Decile Linear 7.97/2.12* −6.88/2.38* 0.44/2.14*
Curvilinear ns 3.35/−1.07/0.30# 4.23/−1.37/0.39#
 By g/day Linear 4.36/2.60* −1.90/3.66* −1.95/4.33*
Curvilinear 10.81/−3.66/0.82# ns ns
Bilirubin (mg/dl)
  N 10,854 10,854 10,021
 By Decile Linear 1.11/0.002 1.10/0.002 1.07/0.004
Curvilinear ns ns ns
 By g/day Linear 1.11/0.003 1.11/0.002 1.07/0.01
Curvilinear ns ns ns
  1. aRegression analyses examining linear and/or quadratic effect of alcohol intake conducted with the following covariates: age, race/ethnicity, current smoking status (yes/no), poverty income ratio, physical activity level (sedentary, moderate, or vigorous based on feedback on questions on activity), energy intake, and body mass index. bβ01 for Linear Trend and β012 for Curvilinear Trend (β0: intercept, β1: linear regression coefficient, and β2: curvilinear regression coefficient);* Significant Linear Trend at P < 0.01; # Significant Curvilinear Trend at P < 0.01; N Sample Size; ns Non-significant Curvilinear Trend