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Table 3 Association of liver enzyme function with alcohol consumption level (Deciles and g/day) by three different methods of alcohol intake estimation among all adults. NHANES 2001–2010a

From: Assessing alcohol intake & its dose-dependent effects on liver enzymes by 24-h recall and questionnaire using NHANES 2001-2010 data

   24-h recall Usual intake by NCI method Alcohol intake questionnaire
Regression coefficientb
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), U/L
  N 21,245 21,245 19,523
 By Decile Linear 47.82/−0.24* 50.70/−0.38* 48.37/−0.45*
Curvilinear 48.14/−1.10/0.11# ns ns
 By g/day Linear 48.21/−0.37* 48.70/−0.45* 47.58/−0.53*
Curvilinear ns ns 51.08/−3.14/0.36#
Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), U/L
  N 21,179 21,179 19,460
  By Decile Linear 9.95/0.26* 7.17/0.37* 9.22/0.27*
Curvilinear ns ns ns
  By g/day Linear 9.59/0.34* 8.84/0.57* 8.91/0.74*
Curvilinear ns ns ns
Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), U/L
  N 21,177 21,177 19,458
 By Decile Linear 18.57/0.42* 15.58/0.40* 17.06/0.33*
Curvilinear ns 17.82/−0.36/0.06# 17.75/−0.35/0.08#
 By g/day Linear 18.00/0.54* 17.01/0.79* 16.64/0.93*
Curvilinear 19.28/−0.70/0.17# ns 17.86/0.02/0.12#
Gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), U/L
  N 21,245 21,245 19,523
 By Decile Linear −0.64/1.65* −13.55/1.72* −5.78/1.43*
Curvilinear ns −8.30/−0.05/0.15# −3.01/−1.30/0.31#
 By g/day Linear −2.94/2.21* −7.09/3.29* −7.36/3.88*
Curvilinear 2.31/−2.95/0.69# ns −3.21/0.80/0.42#
Bilirubin (mg/dl)
  N 21,236 21,236 19,514
 By Decile Linear 0.87/0.003* 0.86/0.001 0.84/0.005*
Curvilinear ns ns ns
 By g/day Linear 0.87/0.004* 0.86/0.004 0.85/0.01*
Curvilinear ns ns ns
  1. aRegression analyses examining linear and/or quadratic effect of alcohol intake conducted with the following covariates: age, gender, race/ethnicity, current smoking status (yes/no), poverty income ratio, physical activity level (sedentary, moderate, or vigorous based on feedback on questions on activity), energy intake, and body mass index. bβ01 for Linear Trend and β012 for Curvilinear Trend (β0: intercept, β1: linear regression coefficient, and β2: curvilinear regression coefficient); * Significant Linear Trend at P < 0.01; # Significant Curvilinear Trend at P < 0.01, N Sample Size; ns Non-significant Curvilinear Trend