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Table 3 Change after 1 year MK-4 supplementation

From: Impact of menaquinone-4 supplementation on coronary artery calcification and arterial stiffness: an open label single arm study

CAC   N Pre 1 year Difference %Difference Paired P value Baseline P value
Total   26 513 ± 773 588 ± 872 72 ± 143 +14 % 0.018  
PIVKA2 23 22 421 ± 543 481 ± 610 60 ± 132 +14 % 0.052 0.64
PIVKA2 >23 4 1010 ± 1558 1151 ± 1761 141 ± 204 +14 % 0.26  
ucOC <4.5 19 348 ± 448 402 ± 515 55 ± 139 +16 % 0.11 0.38
ucOC 4.5 7 947 ± 1232 1064 ± 1387 117 ± 157 +12 % 0.09  
PWV   N Pre 1 year Difference   Paired P value Baseline P value
Total   26 1834 ± 289 1821 ± 378 −12.7 ± 263 −0.7 % 0.811  
PIVKA2 23 22 1826 ± 280 1872 ± 379 47 ± 226 +2.6 % 0.34 0.79
PIVKA2 >23 4 1882 ± 379 1542 ± 248 −340 ± 164 −18 % 0.026  
ucOC <4.5 19 1859 ± 293 1882 ± 410 22 ± 261 +1.2 % 0.71 0.26
ucOC 4.5 7 1766 ± 288 1659 ± 220 −107 ± 240 −6.1 % 0.28  
  1. Despite 1 year MK-4 supplementation, CAC increased +14 % annually. High PIVKA2 and high ucOC indicate vitamin K insufficiency at baseline. Those with high PIVKA2 had significant reduction of PWV