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Table 3 Serum lipid and carotenoid responses to the 4-week intervention with Chlorella supplementation with three eggs daily

From: A dietary cholesterol challenge study to assess Chlorella supplementation in maintaining healthy lipid levels in adults: a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study

Fasting serum levels (mmol/L) Placebo group (n = 17) Chlorella group (n = 17) P-valuea
Week 0 Week 4 Week 0 Week 4 Group Time Group x Time
Serum lipids
 TC 4.24 ± 0.16 4.71 ± 0.15 4.38 ± 0.12 4.47 ± 0.12 0.962 < 0.001 0.037
 LDL-C 2.28 ± 0.11 2.59 ± 0.11 2.49 ± 0.11 2.51 ± 0.12 0.619 0.004 0.012
 HDL-C 1.58 ± 0.08 1.67 ± 0.10 1.55 ± 0.06 1.62 ± 0.05 0.917 0.010 0.404
Serum carotenoids
 Lutein 0.54 ± 0.05 0.89 ± 0.08 0.65 ± 0.03 1.39 ± 0.12 0.001 < 0.001 0.006
 α-carotene 0.06 ± 0.01 0.07 ± 0.01 0.08 ± 0.01 0.24 ± 0.02 < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
 β-carotene 0.19 ± 0.02 0.27 ± 0.05 0.22 ± 0.02 0.29 ± 0.03 0.292 < 0.001 0.753
  1. Values are the means ± SEMs. TC total cholesterol, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol
  2. aMixed-effects ANOVA model with group and time as fixed effects factors and subject as random effect factor