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Table 5 Mixed-effects ANOVA of stool frequency and Bristol Stool Scale scores

From: Effects of milk containing only A2 beta casein versus milk containing both A1 and A2 beta casein proteins on gastrointestinal physiology, symptoms of discomfort, and cognitive behavior of people with self-reported intolerance to traditional cows’ milk

Outcome Sequencea,b Contrast Estimatec P-valued P-valuee
Stool frequency Sequence 1 W1 vs. BL 3.09 ± 3.05 <0.0001  
W2 vs. BL 3.18 ± 3.79 <0.0001  
W3 vs. BL 1.55 ± 2.32 0.0127  
W4 vs. BL 0.09 ± 2.11 0.8828  
W5 vs. BL 0.45 ± 1.97 0.4613  
W6 vs. BL 0.05 ± 1.96 0.9412  
Sequence 2 W1 vs. BL 0.35 ± 1.53 0.5642 <0.001
W2 vs. BL 0.30 ± 2.06 0.6139 0.003
W3 vs. BL 0.04 ± 2.10 0.9425 0.028
W4 vs. BL 0.26 ± 1.54 0.6654 0.759
W5 vs. BL 2.65 ± 3.83 <0.0001 0.021
W6 vs. BL 2.87 ± 3.21 <0.0001 0.001
Bristol Stool Consistency score Sequence 1 W1 vs. BL 0.49 ± 0.86 0.0031  
W2 vs. BL 0.37 ± 0.91 0.0261  
W3 vs. BL 0.23 ± 0.65 0.1588  
W4 vs. BL 0.03 ± 0.80 0.8445  
W5 vs. BL 0.03 ± 0.62 0.8753  
W6 vs. BL 0.01 ± 0.61 0.9687  
Sequence 2 W1 vs. BL 0.04 ± 0.57 0.818 0.041
W2 vs. BL −L vs ± 0.67 0.9694 0.120
W3 vs. BL 0.04 ± 0.72 0.818 0.344
W4 vs. BL −L vs ± 0.73 0.9084 0.826
W5 vs. BL 0.40 ± 0.85 0.0132 0.097
W6 vs. BL 0.26 ± 1.14 0.108 0.358
  1. aSequence 1: A1/A2 → A2
  2. bSequence 2: A2 → A1/A2
  3. cSpecified visit – baseline (mean ± standard deviation)
  4. dVersus baseline; values in bold are statistically significant at P < 0.05
  5. eVersus sequence 1; values in bold are statistically significant at P < 0.05
  6. SD standard deviation, W week, BL baseline