Skip to main content

Table 4 Effects of sequence, time, and intervention on gastrointestinal symptoms

From: Effects of milk containing only A2 beta casein versus milk containing both A1 and A2 beta casein proteins on gastrointestinal physiology, symptoms of discomfort, and cognitive behavior of people with self-reported intolerance to traditional cows’ milk

Outcome Effecta,b   Estimate (log odds ratio)c SE 95 % confidence limit P-valued
      Lower Upper  
Bloating Sequence 1 vs. 2 0.0522 0.8788 −1.6701 1.7745 0.9526
  Sequence 1 W1 vs. BL 1.7527 0.6363 0.5055 2.9999 0.0059
   W2 vs. BL 1.6511 0.6742 0.3297 2.9724 0.0143
   W3 vs. BL −0.051 0.5686 −1.1655 1.0635 0.9285
   W4 vs. BL −0.496 0.8014 −2.0667 1.0748 0.536
   W5 vs. BL −0.051 0.7783 −1.5765 1.4745 0.9477
   W6 vs. BL −1.2279 1.2429 −3.6639 1.2082 0.3232
  Sequence 2 W1 vs. BL 0.3289 0.5601 −0.7689 1.4267 0.5571
   W2 vs. BL 0.2792 0.5768 −0.8513 1.4097 0.6283
   W3 vs. BL −0.0479 0.5305 −1.0876 0.9918 0.928
   W4 vs. BL −0.0479 0.5305 −1.0876 0.9918 0.928
   W5 vs. BL 1.9572 0.6713 0.6415 3.2729 0.0036
   W6 vs. BL 1.7308 0.6743 0.4092 3.0525 0.0103
Abdominal pain Sequence 1 vs. 2 0.5028 0.9654 −1.3893 2.3949 0.6025
  Sequence 1 W1 vs. BL 0.6221 0.6176 −0.5884 1.8325 0.3138
   W2 vs. BL 1.0837 0.5145 0.0754 2.092 0.0352
   W3 vs. BL 0.3417 0.5903 −0.8152 1.4987 0.5626
   W4 vs. BL −0.4568 0.4501 −1.339 0.4255 0.3103
   W5 vs. BL 0 0.5458 −1.0698 1.0698 1
   W6 vs. BL −0.4568 0.4501 −1.339 0.4255 0.3103
  Sequence 2 W1 vs. BL −0.735 1.3002 −3.2834 1.8134 0.5719
   W2 vs. BL 0 1.0937 −2.1436 2.1436 1
   W3 vs. BL 0 1.0937 −2.1436 2.1436 1
   W4 vs. BL 0 1.0937 −2.1436 2.1436 1
   W5 vs. BL 1.3386 0.9439 −0.5114 3.1886 0.1562
   W6 vs. BL 1.1058 0.8062 −0.4742 2.6859 0.1702
Flatulence Sequence 1 vs. 2 0 0.8711 −1.7074 1.7074 1
  Sequence 1 W1 vs. BL 1.0987 0.471 0.1756 2.0218 0.0197
   W2 vs. BL 1.2275 0.461 0.324 2.131 0.0078
   W3 vs. BL −0.3793 0.8025 −1.9521 1.1936 0.6365
   W4 vs. BL −1.0965 1.2459 −3.5384 1.3454 0.3788
   W5 vs. BL −1.0965 1.2459 −3.5384 1.3454 0.3788
   W6 vs. BL −1.0965 1.2459 −3.5384 1.3454 0.3788
  Sequence 2 W1 vs. BL 0 0.5227 −1.0244 1.0244 1
   W2 vs. BL −0.0494 0.5296 −1.0874 0.9885 0.9256
   W3 vs. BL −0.4911 0.4293 −1.3325 0.3502 0.2526
   W4 vs. BL −0.0494 0.5296 −1.0874 0.9885 0.9256
   W5 vs. BL 1.5444 0.5457 0.4748 2.6141 0.0047
   W6 vs. BL 1.1939 0.541 0.1336 2.2542 0.0273
Heavy stomach Sequence 1 vs. 2 0.1422 0.5364 −0.9091 1.1935 0.791
  Sequence 1 W1 vs. BL −0.2612 0.2897 −0.829 0.3067 0.3673
   W2 vs. BL −0.0935 0.3705 −0.8197 0.6326 0.8007
   W3 vs. BL −0.0935 0.308 −0.6972 0.5102 0.7614
   W4 vs. BL −0.2295 0.3383 −0.8925 0.4334 0.4974
   W5 vs. BL −0.0587 0.3931 −0.8292 0.7117 0.8812
   W6 vs. BL −0.0587 0.3928 −0.8286 0.7111 0.8811
  Sequence 2 W1 vs. BL 0.0167 0.3576 −0.6841 0.7176 0.9627
   W2 vs. BL −0.215 0.3906 −0.9806 0.5507 0.5821
   W3 vs. BL −0.1475 0.3687 −0.8702 0.5752 0.6891
   W4 vs. BL −0.1475 0.3717 −0.8761 0.5811 0.6915
   W5 vs. BL −0.2664 0.5159 −1.2776 0.7448 0.6056
   W6 vs. BL −0.1131 0.5352 −1.1621 0.9358 0.8326
Borborygmus Sequence 1 vs. 2 0.0635 0.6389 −1.1887 1.3157 0.9208
  Sequence 1 W1 vs. BL 1.337 0.4883 0.3799 2.2941 0.0062
   W2 vs. BL 1.4152 0.5307 0.3751 2.4553 0.0077
   W3 vs. BL 0 0.4311 −0.845 0.845 1
   W4 vs. BL 0.1847 0.456 −0.7092 1.0785 0.6856
   W5 vs. BL −0.0619 0.4887 −1.0198 0.896 0.8993
   W6 vs. BL 0.2874 0.5223 −0.7362 1.311 0.5821
  Sequence 2 W1 vs. BL 0.1243 0.3335 −0.5293 0.7779 0.7094
   W2 vs. BL −0.0606 0.2848 −0.6189 0.4977 0.8315
   W3 vs. BL 0.2951 0.2606 −0.2157 0.8058 0.2575
   W4 vs. BL −0.0606 0.399 −0.8426 0.7214 0.8793
   W5 vs. BL 2.064 0.4595 1.1634 2.9647 <0.0001
   W6 vs. BL 1.7846 0.4922 0.8199 2.7494 0.0003
  1. aSequence 1: A1/A2 → A2
  2. bSequence 2: A2 → A1/A2
  3. cBaseline − specified visit
  4. dValues in bold are statistically significant at P < 0.05
  5. SE standard error, BL baseline, W week