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Table 3 Gastrointestinal symptoms, weekly stool frequency, and Bristol Stool Scale scores

From: Effects of milk containing only A2 beta casein versus milk containing both A1 and A2 beta casein proteins on gastrointestinal physiology, symptoms of discomfort, and cognitive behavior of people with self-reported intolerance to traditional cows’ milk

Sequencea,b Level Baseline Phase 1 Washout Phase 2
Week 0 Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6
Bloating        
Sequence 1 0 19 (86.4) 12 (54.6) 12 (54.6) 19 (86.4) 20 (90.9) 19 (86.4) 21 (95.5)
1 2 (9.1) 6 (27.3) 7 (31.8) 3 (13.6) 2 (9.1) 3 (13.6) 1 (4.6)
2 1 (4.6) 3 (13.6) 3 (13.6) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
3 0 (0.0) 1 (4.6) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
Sequence 2 0 20 (87.0) 19 (82.6) 19 (82.6) 20 (87.0) 20 (87.0) 12 (52.2) 12 (52.2)
1 2 (8.7) 3 (13.0) 4 (17.4) 3 (13.0) 3 (13.0) 6 (26.1) 9 (39.1)
2 1 (4.4) 1 (4.4) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 4 (17.4) 1 (4.4)
3 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (4.4) 1 (4.4)
Abdominal pain        
Sequence 1 0 19 (86.4) 17 (77.3) 15 (68.2) 18 (81.8) 20 (90.9) 19 (86.4) 20 (90.9)
1 3 (13.6) 5 (22.7) 7 (31.8) 4 (18.2) 2 (9.1) 3 (13.6) 2 (9.1)
Sequence 2 0 21 (91.3) 22 (95.7) 21 (91.3) 21 (91.3) 21 (91.3) 17 (73.9) 18 (78.3)
1 2 (8.7) 1 (4.4) 2 (8.7) 2 (8.7) 2 (8.7) 5 (21.7) 4 (17.4)
2 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (4.4) 1 (4.4)
Flatulence        
Sequence 1 0 19 (86.4) 15 (68.2) 15 (68.2) 20 (90.9) 21 (95.5) 21 (95.5) 21 (95.5)
1 3 (13.6) 4 (18.2) 2 (9.1) 1 (4.6) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
2 0 (0.0) 3 (13.6) 5 (22.7) 1 (4.6) 1 (4.6) 1 (4.6) 1 (4.6)
Sequence 2 0 20 (87.0) 20 (87.0) 20 (87.0) 21 (91.3) 20 (87.0) 3 (13.0) 16 (69.6)
1 2 (8.7) 2 (8.7) 3 (13.0) 2 (8.7) 3 (13.0) 8 (34.8) 3 (13.0)
2 1 (4.4) 1 (4.4) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 2 (8.7) 4 (17.4)
Heavy stomach        
Sequence 1 0 1 (4.6) 1 (4.6) 2 (9.1) 2 (9.1) 2 (9.1) 6 (27.3) 6 (27.3)
1 13 (59.1) 15 (68.2) 12 (54.6) 12 (54.6) 13 (59.1) 5 (22.7) 5 (22.7)
2 8 (36.4) 6 (27.3) 8 (36.4) 8 (36.4) 7 (31.8) 11 (50.0) 11 (50.0)
Sequence 2 0 2 (8.7) 1 (4.4) 3 (13.0) 2 (8.7) 2 (8.7) 3 (13.0) 3 (13.0)
1 13 (56.5) 15 (65.2) 13 (56.5) 14 (60.9) 14 (60.9) 13 (56.5) 12 (52.2)
2 8 (34.8) 6 (26.1) 6 (26.1) 7 (30.4) 7 (30.4) 7 (30.4) 8 (34.8)
3 0 (0.0) 1 (4.4) 1 (4.4) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
Borborygmus        
Sequence 1 0 15 (68.2) 8 (36.4) 10 (45.5) 15 (68.2) 14 (63.6) 15 (68.2) 13 (59.1)
1 6 (27.3) 10 (45.5) 5 (22.7) 6 (27.3) 7 (31.8) 7 (31.8) 9 (40.96)
2 1 (4.6) 4 (18.2) 6 (27.3) 1 (4.6) 1 (4.6) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
3 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (4.6) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
Sequence 2 0 16 (69.6) 15 (65.2) 16 (69.6) 14 (60.9) 16 (69.6) 6 (26.1) 8 (34.8)
1 6 (26.1) 8 (34.8) 7 (30.4) 9 (39.1) 7 (30.4) 11 (47.8) 9 (39.1)
2 1 (4.4) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 6 (26.1) 6 (26.1)
Weekly stool frequency        
Sequence 1 (mean ± SD) 7.86 ± 1.98 10.95 ± 3.54 11.05 ± 4.21 9.41 ± 2.46 7.95 ± 2.30 8.32 ± 1.70 7.91 ± 1.15
Sequence 2 (mean ± SD) 7.57 ± 1.95 7.91 ± 1.28 7.87 ± 1.91 7.61 ± 1.73 7.83 ± 1.59 10.22 ± 4.16 10.43 ± 3.46
Bristol Stool Consistency score        
Sequence 1 (mean ± SD) 4.05 ± 0.65 4.54 ± 0.77 4.42 ± 0.74 4.28 ± 0.45 4.08 ± 0.46 4.07 ± 0.35 4.05 ± 0.25
Sequence 2 (mean ± SD) 4.09 ± 0.67 4.12 ± 0.33 4.08 ± 0.61 4.12 ± 0.54 4.07 ± 0.51 4.49 ± 0.70 4.35 ± 1.11
  1. Values are presented as the n (%) of subjects
  2. aSequence 1: A1/A2 → A2
  3. bSequence 2: A2 → A1/A2