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Table 2 Results of serum and fecal laboratory tests

From: Effects of milk containing only A2 beta casein versus milk containing both A1 and A2 beta casein proteins on gastrointestinal physiology, symptoms of discomfort, and cognitive behavior of people with self-reported intolerance to traditional cows’ milk

Variable Sequence 1a Sequence 2b Mixed-effects ANOVA
  Period 1 Period 2 Period 1 Period 2 Estimatec SD P-valued
  BL PI BL PI BL PI BL PI
Serum          
hs-CRP (mg/L) 1.00 ± 0.70 1.17 ± 0.64 0.97 ± 0.58 1.10 ± 0.58 1.03 ± 1.03 1.02 ± 1.11 1.01 ± 0.98 1.18 ± 1.04 0.0722e 0.03746 0.0608
Hb (g/L) 141.7 ± 17.5 145.1 ± 17.0 136.7 ± 23.2 143.9 ± 16.4 142.8 ± 20.1 145.5 ± 17.7 137.5 ± 25.2 142.0 ± 18.1 −0.8654 1.6781 0.6088
IL-4 (ng/L) 11.8 ± 4.2 14.1 ± 5.2 11.1 ± 3.4 11.0 ± 3.2 11.9 ± 4.3 12.0 ± 3.7 11.8 ± 3.4 14.1 ± 4.6 2.5258 0.5338 <0.0001
IgG (g/L) 10.3 ± 2.1 11.6 ± 2.3 10.2 ± 1.7 10.6 ± 1.4 10.6 ± 2.1 11.1 ± 1.9 10.8 ± 1.8 12.2 ± 1.7 0.1426e 0.03915 0.0007
IgE (IU/mL) 61.3 ± 29.0 69.8 ± 38.0 63.3 ± 30.1 66.2 ± 28.9 58.6 ± 31.2 60.7 ± 33.3 56.7 ± 31.3 64.4 ± 34.2 5.9688 2.5741 0.0253
IgG1 (μg/mL) 29.4 ± 31.3 37.4 ± 39.1 31.0 ± 33.1 30.3 ± 32.9 33.0 ± 28.3 28.5 ± 28.5 32.9 ± 27.2 37.4 ± 31.4 0.2424f 0.07873 0.0037
Feces          
Acetic acid (%) 0.42 ± 0.15 0.42 ± 0.15 0.40 ± 0.14 0.46 ± 0.11 0.39 ± 0.19 0.46 ± 0.19 0.39 ± 0.17 0.36 ± 0.11 −0.0667 0.0226 0.0052
Propanoic acid (%) 0.18 ± 0.07 0.18 ± 0.07 0.17 ± 0.07 0.17 ± 0.07 0.17 ± 0.09 0.19 ± 0.13 0.18 ± 0.09 0.17 ± 0.07 −0.006e 0.0187 0.7504
Butanoic acid (%) 0.17 ± 0.07 0.16 ± 0.07 0.16 ± 0.07 0.20 ± 0.08 0.17 ± 0.09 0.23 ± 0.09 0.17 ± 0.08 0.16 ± 0.05 −0.0515 0.0122 0.0001
Total SCFA (%) 0.76 ± 0.24 0.76 ± 0.24 0.72 ± 0.24 0.83 ± 0.19 0.73 ± 0.33 0.88 ± 0.33 0.74 ± 0.28 0.69 ± 0.18 −0.1289 0.03609 0.0009
  1. aSequence 1: A1/A2 → A2
  2. bSequence 2: A2 → A1/A2
  3. cA1/A2 − A2
  4. dValues in bold are statistically significant at P < 0.05
  5. eBecause the variable was non-normally distributed, mixed-effects ANOVA was performed using the square root-transformed values
  6. fBecause the variable was non-normally distributed, mixed-effects ANOVA was performed using the log-transformed values
  7. ANOVA analysis of variance, BL baseline, PI postintervention (i.e., after 2 weeks of each intervention), SD standard deviation, hs-CRP highly sensitive C-reactive protein, Hb hemoglobin, BCM-7 β-casomorphin-7, IL-4 interleukin-4, Ig immunoglobulin, SCFA short-chain fatty acids