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Table 1 Volunteers’ descriptive characteristics at baseline (n = 40)

From: Acute effects of coffee consumption on self-reported gastrointestinal symptoms, blood pressure and stress indices in healthy individuals

Characteristic Total sample (n = 40) Men (n = 20) Women (n = 20) P1
Age (years) 26.5 (23.0, 34.5) 31 ± 8.7 28 ± 7.8 NS
Body weight (kg) 70.9 ± 15.9 83.7 ± 11.0 58.1 ± 7.4 <0.001
Body Mass Index (kg/m2) 23.6 ± 3.5 25.7 ± 3 21.4 ± 2.4 <0.001
Body fat (%) 22.1 ± 6.9 20.1 ± 6.7 24.2 ± 6.7 NS
Lean body mass (kg) 54.8 ± 12.4 66.2 ± 5.9 43.3 ± 2.7 <0.001
Total body water (kg) 40.1 ± 9.1 48.5 ± 4.3 31.7 ± 2 <0.001
Daily caffeine intake (mg) 109.6 (49.9, 156.9) 120.2 (47.3, 159.5) 99.0 (49.9, 156.9) NS
Daily energy intake (kcal) 1931.4 (1678.6, 2745.6) 2625.2 ± 878.5 1885 ± 437.2 <0.001
Carbohydrates (%) 43.7 ± 9.6 41.1 ± 8.5 46.3 ± 10.1 NS
Protein (%) 17.0 (13.5, 20) 17.8 ± 5.7 16.9 ± 4 NS
Fat (%) 37.9 ± 9.3 40.2 ± 8.1 35.7 ± 10.1 NS
Energy expenditure- HPAQ (kcal) 2400.0 (2070.0, 3128.0) 3061.6 ± 579.6 2070.0 (1643.5, 2203.5) <0.001
Score of the PSS-14 Questionnaire (0–56) 31.8 ± 5.5 32.1 ± 4.3 31.6 ± 6.6 NS
Score of the Zung self-rating anxiety scale questionnaire (20–80) 30.9 ± 4.6 30.9 ± 5.3 31 ± 3.9 NS
Score of the Zung self-rating depression scale questionnaire (20–80) 33.8 ± 6.5 33.2 ± 6.5 34.4 ± 6.6 NS
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 122.6 ± 14.4 128.2 ± 12.3 117 ± 14.4 0.012
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 79.4 ± 10.3 83.3 ± 5.8 75.5 ± 12.3 0.015
  1. Data are Means ± SEM, or Median (1st tertile, 3rd tertile)
  2. Abbreviations: NS not statistically significant
  3. P-values < 0.05 were considered as significant