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Table 5 Beneficial effect of pistachio consumption on glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, inflammation and related metabolic risk markers: results from a randomized clinical trial

From: Pairing nuts and dried fruit for cardiometabolic health

  Pistachio diet Control diet Treatment effect
Characteristics Baseline Change Baseline Change P-value
Fasting plasma glucose (mg/dL) 116.24 (112.37, 120.11) -­5.17 (-­8.14, -­2.19)* 108.06 (104.27, 111.84) 6.72 (4.38, 9.07) <0.001
Fasting plasma insulin (mU/mL) 14.36 (12.65, 16.07) -­2.04 (-­3.17, -­0.92)* 11.44 (9.81, 13.07) 2.51 (1.02, 4.00) <0.001
HOMA-­IR 4.22 (3.66, 4.77) -­0.69 (-­1.07, -­0.31)* 3.10 (2.64, 3.56) 0.97 (0.49, 1.44) <0.001
HOMA-­BCF 98.22 (86.35, 110.09) -­3.46 (-­11.45, 4.53) 96.76 (78.45, 115.07) -­0.25 (-­9.65, 9.16) 0.620
HbA1c (%) 5.92 (5.82, 6.02) ­0.03 (-­0.12, 0.05) 5.87 (5.75, 5.99) 0.03 (-­0.03, 0.10) 0.130
Fibrinogen (ng/mL) 71.18 (65.62, 76.75) -­2.24 (-­5.94, 1.46) 65.13 (60.45, 69.81) 3.24 (-­0.19, 6.67) 0.019
Tissue Factor (pg/mL) 195.71 (143.16, 248.26) 16.33 (-­10.60, 43.27) 225.57 (169.88, 281.26) -­14.46 (-­40.35, 11.43) 0.162
PAI-­1 (pg/mL) 158.37 (134.65, 182.10) 13.26 (-­13.81, 40.33) 177.42 (136.40, 218.43) -­12.91 (-­42.41, 16.59) 0.146
Von Willebrand factor (ng/mL) 0.61 (0.47, 0.75) 0.27 (0.00, 0.55) 0.99 (0.59, 1.39) -­0.04 (-­0.53, 0.45) 0.149
Platelet Factor 4 (ng/mL) 0.20 (0.07, 0.32) -­0.07 (-­0.13, -­0.02) 0.12 (0.09, 0.15) 0.00 (-­0.02, 0.02) 0.014
Thromboxane B2 (ng/mL) 2.20 (1.60, 2.80) -­0.18 (-­0.55, 0.19) 2.20 (1.69, 2.71) 0.13 (-­0.33, 0.58) 0.306
Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide (pg/mL) 32.55 (26.99, 38.11) -­0.04 (-­4.17, 4.09) 34.19 (29.17, 39.21) -­1.31 (-­5.08, 2.46) 0.613
Glucagon-­Like Peptide-­1 (pg/mL) 46.62 (37.24, 56.00) 4.09 (1.25, 6.94)* 47.40 (37.77, 57.04) -­0.59 (-­2.98, 1.80) 0.009
C-­peptide (ng/mL) 1.83 (1.68, 1.98) -­0.06 (-­0.18, 0.06) 1.75 (1.60, 1.91) 0.01 (-­0.11, 0.14) 0.338
Resistin (pg/mL) 105.70 (89.89, 121.50) 2.29 (-­7.14, 11.73) 108.63 (89.55, 127.71) 4.19 (-­21.01, 29.39) 0.669
  1. Adapted from Hernandez-­Alonso, P. et al [5]
  2. All values are means (95 % CI). Intra-­group analysis was assessed by paired t-­test. Basal-­adjusted changes between groups were analysed using adjusted ANOVA of repeated measurements
  3. * Significantly difference (P < 0.05) between baseline and final in a certain intervention period