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Table 3 Comparison of immune markers between study groups

From: Cow’s milk-based beverage consumption in 1- to 4-year-olds and allergic manifestations: an RCT

Variablea Control median (IQRb) CMBB median (IQRb) p-value*
Fecal Secretory IgA, mg/dL
 Baseline 102 (12–226) 67 (7–228) 0.975
 Week 28 45 (8–183) 32 (6–153) 0.452
 Baseline to Week 28 −1 (−110–28) −5 (−131–24) 0.664
IL-10, pg/mL    
 Baseline 19.1 (11.9–27.5) 17.3 (12.0–27.6) 0.760
 Week 28 13.9 (9.1–18.6) 13.6 (9.8–19.1) 0.771
 Baseline to Week 28 −4.9 (−13.0–3.0) −.39 (−12.0–0.0) 0.827
TGF-β1, pg/mL
 Baseline 20572 (15943–25641) 22386 (17161–29081) 0.109
 Week 28 29133 (22432–35466) 29131 (22010–37532) 0.957
 Baseline to Week 28 7863 (2569–14178) 6351 (−1346–12472) 0.132
TGF-β2, pg/mLc
 Baseline 344.1 (252.9–479.8) 326.0 (≤262.2–461.7) 0.801
 Week 28 438.1 (296.7–600.2) 414.5 (≤331.0–586.3) 0.602
 Baseline to Week 28 48.7 (0–123) 48.7 (0–125) 0.465
IL-4, pg/mLd
 Baseline <1.6 (<1.6- < 1.6) <1.6 (<1.6- < 1.6) 0.305
 Week 28 <1.6 (<1.6- < 1.6) <1.6 (<1.6- < 1.6) 0.305
IFN-ϒ, pg/mLd
 Baseline <15.6 (<15.6- < 15.6) <15.6 (<15.6- < 15.6) 0.368
 Week 28 <15.6 (<15.6- < 15.6) <15.6 (<15.6- < 15.6) 0.378
  1. aAll markers except fecal secretory IgA were measured in serum
  2. bIQR = 25–75 % interquartile range
  3. c28 % of samples were under the detection limit
  4. dChanges from baseline to week 28 were not analyzed because most of the samples were under detection limit
  5. *Van Elteren test stratified by age category was used for fecal secretory IgA, TGF-β1 and TGF-β2; Kruskal-Wallis test was used for all other immune markers