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Table 4 Characteristics according to quintile categories in each dietary pattern

From: Relationship between dietary patterns and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional study

Variable Meat, fats and oils, seasonings and eggs Fruit, dairy products and sweets Rice and miso soups
Quintile 1 Quintile 5 Model 1 Quintile 1 Quintile 5 Model 1 Quintile 1 Quintile 5 Model 1
Age (years) 60.6 ± 6.7 54.9 ± 8.9 - 56.6 ± 9.1 58.7 ± 8.2 - 57.5 ± 8.8 58.3 ± 8.6 -
Gender (male) 104 (55.3) 132 (72.9) - 134 (82.7) 109(55.9) - 106 (55.5) 137 (76.5) -
Body mass index (kg/m2) 24.3 ± 3.9 25.3 ± 4.5 −0.11 24.4 ± 3.8 24.6 ± 4.2 1.20 25.2 ± 4.3 24.4 ± 3.8 −1.80
Estimated duration of diabetes (years) 10.0 ± 7.4 9.5 ± 6.5 0.47 9.4 ± 7.0 10.2 ± 7.8 0.76 9.5 ± 6.7 10.2 ± 7.0 0.83
MEQ 58.9 ± 7.4 56.5 ± 7.4 −2.14* 58.6 ± 7.8 56.3 ± 7.2 −3.36*** 57.1 ± 7.9 56.9 ± 7.5 −0.91
PSQI 4.5 ± 2.6 5.3 ± 3.1 2.00* 5.1 ± 3.0 5.2 ± 3.1 0.02 5.2 ± 2.9 5.0 ± 2.4 −0.06
BDI-II 9.6 ± 8.1 10.0 ± 6.8 0.65 9.7 ± 7.1 10.6 ± 8.6 1.24 10.3 ± 7.9 10.4 ± 8.5 0.98
Energy intake (kcal/day) 1440 ± 479 2118 ± 651 12.94*** 1781 ± 618 1909 ± 626 4.14*** 1418 ± 456 2047 ± 568 11.01***
Current smoker (%) 39 (20.7) 50 (27.6) −0.03 55 (34.0) 32 (16.4) −2.54* 46 (24.1) 42 (23.5) −1.00
Physical activity (kcal/day) 39.3 ± 65.3 39.1 ± 73.5 0.13 46.4 ± 78.9 45.5 ± 80.7 −0.45 41.3 ± 62.8 47.8 ± 84.4 1.08
Worker (yes) 128 (68.1) 150(82.9) 0.11 134 (82.7) 128 (65.6) −2.51* 131 (68.6) 138 (77.1) 1.91
Sleep duration (hours) 6.7 ± 1.2 6.3 ± 1.2 −1.88 6.5 ± 1.3 6.5 ± 1.1 −0.02 6.5 ± 1.1 6.4 ± 1.2 −0.55
Diabetes medication (yes) 164(87.2) 151 (83.4) −0.58 140 (86.4) 164 (84.1) −1.12 167 (87.4) 153 (85.5) −0.80
Hypertension medication (yes) 92 (48.9) 82 (45.3) −0.75 95 (58.6) 82 (42.1) −2.86** 94 (49.2) 95 (53.1) 0.01
Hyperlipidemia medication (yes) 122(64.9) 99 (54.7) −0.35 78 (48.1) 131 (67.2) 2.86** 118 (61.8) 95 (53.1) −1.14
  1. Data are mean ± SD, median [range: 25 % to 75 %] or number of subjects (percentages) before adjustment. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001
  2. Model 1: Trend estimation for linear trends across quintiles is based on linear regression analysis for continuous variables or logistic regression analysis for categorical variables adjusted for age and gender. Standardized regression coefficients are shown. See Table 3 for abbreviations