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Table 3 Characteristics according to quintile categories based on dietary patterns

From: Relationship between dietary patterns and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cross-sectional study

Variable Seaweeds, vegetables, soy products and mushrooms Fish and meat Noodle and soups
Quintile 1 Quintile 5 Model 1 Quintile 1 Quintile 5 Model 1 Quintile 1 Quintile 5 Model 1
Age (years) 53.9 ± 8.9 59.5 ± 8.2 - 58.3 ± 8.6 57.9 ± 8.9 - 59.1 ± 7.9 57.6 ± 8.7 -
Gender (male) 92 (63.4) 83 (57.2) - 108 (74.5) 86 (59.3) - 83 (44.4) 133 (85.3) -
Body mass index (kg/m2) 25.8 ± 4.0 24.1 ± 4.2 −1.64 24.7 ± 3.8 24.8 ± 4.3 0.40 23.9 ± 3.9 25.1 ± 4.1 3.04**
Estimated duration of diabetes (years) 9.5 ± 6.8 9.4 ± 6.4 −1.44 9.9 ± 6.8 10.4 ± 6.9 1.00 9.7 ± 7.3 9.5 ± 7.0 0.00
MEQ 55.3 ± 8.0 58.7 ± 6.8 2.55*** 57.6 ± 7.5 57.6 ± 7.4 −0.11 57.9 ± 7.4 57.5 ± 7.1 −1.21
PSQI 5.8 ± 3.8 4.8 ± 2.6 −1.53 5.0 ± 3.1 5.5 ± 3.4 1.35 5.1 ± 3.4 5.1 ± 2.8 1.03
BDI-II 11.4 ± 7.5 9.1 ± 7.4 −2.18* 10.0 ± 7.5 10.8 ± 8.0 0.71 9.8 ± 8.1 9.6 ± 7.9 0.47
Energy intake (kcal/day) 1614 ± 655 2000 ± 546 6.43*** 1621 ± 506 2154 ± 658 10.90*** 1542 ± 502 2055 ± 665 7.55
Current smoker (%) 34 (23.4) 27 (18.6) −0.28 41 (28.3) 27 (18.6) −0.64 42 (22.5) 46(29.5) 0.14
Physical activity (kcal/day) 37.2 ± 65.0 51.7 ± 84.1 2.17* 44.5 ± 65.1 46.2 ± 85.6 1.14 40.3 ± 67.9 51.8 ± 95.2 1.73
Worker (yes) 114 (78.6) 92 (63.4) −1.22 105 (72.4) 105 (72.4) 1.31 132(70.6) 118 (75.6) −0.84
Sleep duration (hours) 6.4 ± 1.4 6.5 ± 1.2 −1.15 6.5 ± 1.3 6.4 ± 1.3 −0.14 6.4 ± 1.3 6.4 ± 1.1 −0.27
Diabetes medication (yes) 130 (89.7) 114 (78.6) −2.50* 122 (84.1) 120 (82.8) −033 155 (82.9) 132 (84.6) −0.21
Hypertension medication (yes) 74 (51.0) 62 (42.8) −1.84 71 (49.0) 78 (53.8) 1.60 85 (45.5) 74 (47.4) −0.03
Hyperlipidemia medication (yes) 90 (62.1) 87 (60.0) −0.93 89 (61.4) 86 (59.3) −1.10 106 (56.7) 86 (55.1) 1.37
  1. Data are mean ± SD, median [range: 25 % to 75 %] or number of subjects (percentage) before adjustment. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001
  2. Model 1: Trend estimation for linear trends across quintiles is based on linear regression analysis for continuous variables or logistic regression analysis for categorical variables adjusted for age and gender. Standardized regression coefficients are shown. BDI beck depression inventory, MEQ morningness-eveningness questionnaire, PSQI: Pittsburg sleep quality index