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Table 1 Summary of the knee pain-improving effects of ingested hyaluronan

From: Oral hyaluronan relieves knee pain: a review

Study designs Materials and Methods Subjects Results References
Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial HA mixture at 630 mg (HA 60 mg; MW <5 k) daily for 2 weeks 24 patients with knee pain (in Japan) Significant improve of knee pain and discomfort [34]
Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial HA mixture at 80 mg (HA 48 mg; MW 1000 k) daily for 2 months 20 patients aged ≥40 years with knee OA (in USA) Significant improve from baseline for bodily pain bodily pain subscale and physical component summary. [35]
Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial HA at 240 mg (MW 900 k) daily for 8 weeks 26 patients aged 50 ~ 65 years with knee pain (in Japan) Significant improve of knee pain and stiffness [36]
Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial HA at 200 mg (MW 900 k) daily for 8 weeks 25 patients with knee OA [WOMAC pain score > 10] (in USA) Significant improve of tatal WOMAC score and activity of daily living [37]
Retrospective cohort study, PCT-controlled trial HA mixture at 80 mg (HA 48 mg; MW N/A) daily for 6 months 69 patients with knee OA and synovitis (in Spain) Significant improve of synovial effusion and knee pain [38]
Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial HA mixture at 630 mg (HA 60 mg; MW <5 k) daily for 4 months 40 patients with knee OA and synovitis (in Japan) Significant improve of pain/step-up and -down function and aggregate total symptoms [39]
Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial HA mixture at 2520 mg (HA 72 mg; MW <5 k) daily for 12 weeks 29 patients with knee OA and synovitis (in Japan) Significant improve of bone metabolism marker [40]
Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial HA at 200 mg (MW 900 k) daily for 12 months 38 patients with knee OA (in Japan) Significant improve of Health condition [41]
21patients aged 70 years with knee OA (in Japan) Significant improve of total JKOM score, pain and stiffness in the knee and general activities
Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial HA mixture at 80 mg (HA 52 mg; MW N/A) daily for 90 days 40 healthy individuals with mild joint discomfort (in Spain) Significant improve of joint mechanics and muscle function [42]
Meta-analysis included in two randomized, controlled, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials HA mixture at 80 mg (HA 48 mg; MW N/A) daily for 3 months 148 healthy individuals with mild knee pain (in Spain) Significant improve of muscle function, synovial effusion and reduces pain [43]
Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial HA mixture at 80 mg (HA 52 mg; MW N/A) daily for 90 days 68 healthy individuals with mild joint discomfort (in Spain) Significant improve of articular pain, synovial effusion and knee muscular strength [44]
Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial HA mixture at 80 mg (HA 56 mg; MW N/A) daily for 3 months 40 patients with knee OA (in USA) Significant improve of total WOMAC score and knee pain [45]
Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial HA mixture daily for 4 weeks (HA 225 mg daily for first 2 weeks, HA 150 mg daily for last 2 weeks; MW 2500 k ~ 2800 k) 72 patients with knee pain (in USA) Significant improve of knee pain [46]