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Table 6 Mean nutrient intake across WG consumption groups in adults (19+ years) based on NHANES (2001–2012)1, 2

From: Whole grain consumption trends and associations with body weight measures in the United States: results from the cross sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2012

  WG consumption groups P value
Energy/nutrient WG = 0 (n = 14,742) 0 < WG < 1 (n = 7479) WG > =1 (n = 7462)  
Energy (kcal) 2177 ± 15a 2079 ± 14b 2285 ± 17c <0.0001
Carbohydrate (g) 259 ± 2a 251 ± 2b 289 ± 2c <0.0001
Total fat (g) 82.6 ± 0.7a 80 ± 0.6b 83.7 ± 0.8a 0.0002
Protein (g) 82.1 ± 0.6a 79.5 ± 0.6b 88.3 ± 0.7c <0.0001
Total sugars (g) 122 ± 1.2a 118 ± 1.4b 127 ± 1.5c <0.0001
Total saturated fatty acids (g) 27.4 ± 0.3a 26.2 ± 0.2b 26.8 ± 0.3ab 0.0029
Total polyunsaturated fatty acids (g) 17.2 ± 0.2a 17.4 ± 0.2a 19.3 ± 0.2b <0.0001
Total monounsaturated fatty acids (g) 30.6 ± 0.3a 29.3 ± 0.2b 30.2 ± 0.3a 0.0016
Dietary fiber (g) 13.7 ± 0.2a 15.5 ± 0.1b 22 ± 0.2c <0.0001
Cholesterol (mg) 303 ± 3a 278 ± 3b 267 ± 4c <0.0001
Sodium (mg) 3501 ± 25a 3369 ± 28b 3700 ± 30c <0.0001
Potassium (mg) 2556 ± 18a 2686 ± 19b 3099 ± 23c <0.0001
Calcium (mg) 858 ± 9a 923 ± 9b 1106 ± 11c <0.0001
Vitamin C (mg) 79.3 ± 1.6a 88.7 ± 1.8b 101 ± 2.1c <0.0001
Thiamin (Vitamin B1) (mg) 1.5 ± 0.01a 1.6 ± 0.02b 2 ± 0.02c <0.0001
Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) (mg) 2 ± 0.02a 2.2 ± 0.02b 2.6 ± 0.02c <0.0001
Niacin (mg) 23.7 ± 0.2a 24.2 ± 0.2a 28.6 ± 0.2b <0.0001
Vitamin B6 (mg) 1.8 ± 0.02a 1.9 ± 0.02b 2.4 ± 0.02c <0.0001
Vitamin B12 (mcg) 4.9 ± 0.1a 5.5 ± 0.2b 6.1 ± 0.1c <0.0001
Iron (mg) 13.5 ± 0.1a 15.1 ± 0.1b 19.7 ± 0.2c <0.0001
Zinc (mg) 11.2 ± 0.1a 11.6 ± 0.1b 14.1 ± 0.1c <0.0001
Magnesium (mg) 263 ± 2a 284 ± 2b 368 ± 3c <0.0001
Folate, DFE (mcg) 473 ± 4a 540 ± 6b 687 ± 8c <0.0001
Vitamin E as alpha-tocopherol (mg) 7 ± 0.1a 7.6 ± 0.1b 9.1 ± 0.1c <0.0001
Vitamin A, RAE (mcg) 522 ± 9a 657 ± 18b 787 ± 13c <0.0001
Vitamin D (D2 + D3) (mcg) 3.9 ± 0.1a 4.9 ± 0.1b 5.8 ± 0.1c <0.0001
Selenium (mcg) 108 ± 1a 107 ± 1a 121 ± 1b <0.0001
  1. 1Day 1 from foods only, excluding pregnant and breastfeeding women
  2. 2Mean nutrient intake was estimated using PROC SURVEYMEANS and ANOVA was used to compare the mean nutrient intake between three WG consumption groups, means with different superscript letters across rows are significantly different.