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Table 5 Mean nutrient intake across WG consumption groups in children (6–18 years) based on NHANES (2001–2012)1,2

From: Whole grain consumption trends and associations with body weight measures in the United States: results from the cross sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2012

  WG consumption groups P value
Energy/nutrient WG = 0 (n = 7768) 0 < WG < 1 (n = 4675) WG > =1 (n = 2837)  
Energy (kcal) 2060 ± 16a 2045 ± 19a 2292 ± 28b <0.0001
Carbohydrate (g) 272 ± 2a 277 ± 2a 314 ± 4b <0.0001
Total fat (g) 77.6 ± 0.8a 74.8 ± 0.9b 82.3 ± 1.3c <0.0001
Protein (g) 71.9 ± 0.7a 71.4 ± 0.8a 81 ± 1.2b <0.0001
Total sugars (g) 137 ± 1a 140 ± 2a 150 ± 2b <0.0001
Total saturated fatty acids (g) 26.9 ± 0.3a 26.4 ± 0.4a 28.4 ± 0.5b 0.0012
Total polyunsaturated fatty acids (g) 15.5 ± 0.2a 14.9 ± 0.2b 17.8 ± 0.3c <0.0001
Total monounsaturated fatty acids (g) 28.7 ± 0.3a 27.3 ± 0.4b 29.2 ± 0.5a 0.0008
Dietary fiber (g) 11.9 ± 0.2a 13.3 ± 0.2b 18.4 ± 0.3c <0.0001
Cholesterol (mg) 244 ± 4a 220 ± 4b 230 ± 5b 0.0014
Sodium (mg) 3231 ± 35a 3230 ± 45a 3518 ± 53b <0.0001
Potassium (mg) 2148 ± 25a 2244 ± 27b 2607 ± 44c <0.0001
Calcium (mg) 932 ± 12a 1051 ± 14b 1218 ± 21c <0.0001
Vitamin C (mg) 74.9 ± 2a 80.8 ± 2b 92.6 ± 4c <0.0001
Thiamin (Vitamin B1) (mg) 1.5 ± 0.02a 1.6 ± 0.02b 2 ± 0.03c <0.0001
Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) (mg) 1.9 ± 0.03a 2.2 ± 0.03b 2.5 ± 0.04c <0.0001
Niacin (mg) 20.8 ± 0.3a 22 ± 0.3b 26.5 ± 0.4c <0.0001
Vitamin B6 (mg) 1.6 ± 0.03a 1.7 ± 0.03b 2.2 ± 0.05c <0.0001
Vitamin B12 (mcg) 4.7 ± 0.1a 5.3 ± 0.1b 6.1 ± 0.2c <0.0001
Iron (mg) 13.2 ± 0.1a 15.1 ± 0.2b 19.7 ± 0.3c <0.0001
Zinc (mg) 10 ± 0.1a 11.3 ± 0.1b 13.7 ± 0.2c <0.0001
Magnesium (mg) 216 ± 2a 233 ± 2b 306 ± 4c <0.0001
Folate, DFE (mcg) 473 ± 7a 579 ± 9b 713 ± 17c <0.0001
Vitamin E as alpha-tocopherol (mg) 6.1 ± 0.1a 6.2 ± 0.1a 7.7 ± 0.2b <0.0001
Vitamin A, RAE (mcg) 504 ± 10a 621 ± 10b 740 ± 18c <0.0001
Vitamin D (D2 + D3) (mcg) 4.8 ± 0.1a 5.9 ± 0.1b 6.4 ± 0.2c <0.0001
Selenium (mcg) 96 ± 1.1a 95.6 ± 1.2a 111.1 ± 1.6b <0.0001
  1. 1Day 1 from foods only, excluding pregnant and breastfeeding women
  2. 2Mean nutrient intake was estimated using PROC SURVEYMEANS and ANOVA was used to compare the mean nutrient intake between three WG consumption groups, means with different superscript letters across rows are significantly different.