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Table 6 Blood biochemical parameters during the intervention period and post- ingestion period

From: Oral intake of a combination of glucosyl hesperidin and caffeine elicits an anti-obesity effect in healthy, moderately obese subjects: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial

     Intervention period post- ingestion period
Parameter Standard value Group n Week-0 Week-4 Week-8 Week-12 Week-16
Triglyceride (mg/dl) 50 ~ 149 Placebo 14 144 ± 65 142 ± 43 131 ± 55 141 ± 61 119 ± 44
GH 15 128 ± 55 132 ± 49 134 ± 71 153 ± 70 152 ± 58
GH + Caf 25 15 126 ± 48 137 ± 53 135 ± 47 129 ± 36 127 ± 47
GH + Caf 50 15 133 ± 70 137 ± 29 136 ± 50 148 ± 66 144 ± 54
GH + Caf 75 15 156 ± 74 136 ± 35 127 ± 40 134 ± 39 135 ± 41
ΔTriglyceride (mg/dl)   Placebo 14   −1.4 ± 58 −12.4 ± 49 −2.6 ± 57 −24.9 ± 50
GH 15   4.3 ± 33 5.5 ± 46 24.6 ± 60 24.0 ± 47
GH + Caf 25 15   11.1 ± 49 8.9 ± 51 3.0 ± 44 1.0 ± 46
GH + Caf 50 15   4.4 ± 69 2.9 ± 70 15.3 ± 45 10.7 ± 54
GH + Caf 75 15   −21.9 ± 80 −29.3 ± 66 −22.7 ± 61 −21.3 ± 74
Total cholesterol (mg/dl) 150 ~ 219 Placebo 14 220 ± 37 216 ± 44 215 ± 39 220 ± 39 219 ± 45
GH 15 229 ± 29 217 ± 29* 224 ± 29 224 ± 30 222 ± 28
GH + Caf 25 15 213 ± 27 210 ± 24 202 ± 30 205 ± 26 205 ± 31
GH + Caf 50 15 222 ± 34 218 ± 37 216 ± 34 222 ± 34 219 ± 40
GH + Caf 75 15 241 ± 27 228 ± 31 225 ± 27* 227 ± 24* 233 ± 23
ΔTotal cholesterol (mg/dl)   Placebo 14   −4.8 ± 20 −5.2 ± 16 −0.1 ± 18 −1.9 ± 24
GH 15   −12.5 ± 17 −5.3 ± 15 −5.8 ± 14 −7.6 ± 16
GH + Caf 25 15   −3.3 ± 17 −11.3 ± 21 −8.2 ± 16 −8.5 ± 17
GH + Caf 50 15   −4.5 ± 16 −6.1 ± 18 0 ± 15 −3.2 ± 22
GH + Caf 75 15   −5.3 ± 22 −15.5 ± 21 −13.1 ± 14 −7.6 ± 22
HDL-cholesterol (mg/dl) Men: Placebo 14 54.6 ± 12 51.8 ± 10 51.5 ± 12 51.8 ± 11 53.0 ± 12
40 ~ 80 GH 15 53.9 ± 10 51.8 ± 10 52.3 ± 9 50.9 ± 9 51.7 ± 9
Women: GH + Caf 25 15 53.9 ± 11 53.4 ± 13 49.3 ± 10** 49.9 ± 11** 50.9 ± 10
40 ~ 90 GH + Caf 50 15 53.6 ± 11 51.5 ± 9 49.7 ± 6 50.1 ± 8 51.7 ± 8
  GH + Caf 75 15 56.5 ± 11 55.9 ± 12 55.0 ± 12 54.3 ± 11 55.1 ± 10
ΔHDL-cholesterol (mg/dl)   Placebo 14   −2.8 ± 6.2 −3.1 ± 4.7 −2.8 ± 5.0 −1.6 ± 5.6
GH 15   −2.1 ± 5.4 −1.6 ± 4.4 −3.0 ± 5.6 −2.1 ± 4.8
GH + Caf 25 15   −0.5 ± 4.9 −4.6 ± 4.4 −4.0 ± 3.9 −3.1 ± 4.4
GH + Caf 50 15   −2.1 ± 5.1 −3.9 ± 7.1 −3.5 ± 4.8 −1.9 ± 8.2
GH + Caf 75 15   −0.3 ± 6.7 −1.5 ± 6.4 −2.2 ± 5.7 −1.4 ± 5.8
LDL-cholesterol (mg/dl) 70 ~ 139 Placebo 14 147 ± 41 142 ± 44 145 ± 40 144 ± 39 148 ± 47
GH 15 151 ± 29 140 ± 24 148 ± 30 140 ± 30* 144 ± 25
GH + Caf 25 15 140 ± 30 137 ± 20 134 ± 27 133 ± 25 134 ± 27
GH + Caf 50 15 149 ± 37 147 ± 40 147 ± 36 148 ± 36 147 ± 37
GH + Caf 75 15 161 ± 28 155 ± 29 152 ± 19 149 ± 21 160 ± 24
ΔLDL-cholesterol (mg/dL)   Placebo 14   −5.6 ± 17 −2.4 ± 15 −2.8 ± 16 0.9 ± 21
GH 15   −11.0 ± 17 −3.1 ± 15 −10.6 ± 14 −7.5 ± 14
GH + Caf 25 15   −2.6 ± 21 −5.9 ± 18 −7.5 ± 14 −5.9 ± 15
GH + Caf 50 15   −2.7 ± 16 −2.3 ± 18 −1.0 ± 14 −2.8 ± 15
GH + Caf 75 15   1.1 ± 31 −8.9 ± 20 −12.2 ± 21 −1.5 ± 23
  1. GH glucosyl hesperidin 500 mg, Caf 25, 50, 75, caffeine 25 mg, 50 mg, 75 mg, BMI Body Mass Index, LDL low-density lipoprotein, HDL high-density lipoprotein
  2. Mean ± SD *p < 0.05, **P < 0.01 vs. baseline (week 0) (paired t-test)