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Table 5 Anthropometric variables during the intervention period and post- ingestion periods

From: Oral intake of a combination of glucosyl hesperidin and caffeine elicits an anti-obesity effect in healthy, moderately obese subjects: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial

   Intervention period post- ingestion period
Parameter Group n Week-0 Week-4 Week-8 Week-12 Week-16
Body weight (kg) Placebo 14 70.3 ± 9.6 70.1 ± 9.2 70.6 ± 9.0 70.1 ± 8.8 70.5 ± 9.3
GH 15 70.0 ± 9.9 69.5 ± 9.7 69.9 ± 9.7 69.6 ± 9.4 70.0 ± 9.7
GH + Caf 25 15 69.2 ± 9.0 69.1 ± 9.0 68.8 ± 9.2 68.6 ± 9.5 68.7 ± 9.5
GH + Caf 50 15 70.5 ± 7.4 70.2 ± 7.5 70.1 ± 7.7 69.8 ± 7.7 69.8 ± 8.0
GH + Caf 75 15 70.2 ± 6.5 69.8 ± 6.6 69.3 ± 6.9 68.8 ± 7.0 68.9 ± 7.0
ΔBody weight (kg) Placebo 14   −0.26 ± 1.1 0.24 ± 1.2 −0.19 ± 1.7 0.16 ± 1.7
GH 15   −0.44 ± 1.0 −0.09 ± 0.9 −0.39 ± 1.1 0.08 ± 1.4
GH + Caf 25 15   −0.11 ± 0.8 −0.39 ± 1.0 −0.57 ± 1.1 −0.48 ± 1.7
GH + Caf 50 15   −0.29 ± 1.1 −0.44 ± 1.3 −0.67 ± 1.4 −0.67 ± 1.8
GH + Caf 75 15   −0.36 ± 1.0 −0.88 ± 1.4# −1.43 ± 2.0 −1.27 ± 2.2
BMI (kg/m2) Placebo 14 26.1 ± 1.1 26.1 ± 1.2 26.3 ± 1.1 26.1 ± 1.3 26.2 ± 1.2
GH 15 26.2 ± 1.6 26.1 ± 1.6 26.2 ± 1.6 26.1 ± 1.6 26.3 ± 1.6
GH + Caf 25 15 26.3 ± 1.2 26.2 ± 1.3 26.1 ± 1.3 26.0 ± 1.4 26.1 ± 1.6
GH + Caf 50 15 26.7 ± 1.8 26.6 ± 1.8 26.5 ± 1.9 26.4 ± 1.9 26.4 ± 2.0
GH + Caf 75 15 26.5 ± 1.2 26.4 ± 1.3 26.2 ± 1.3 25.9 ± 1.3* 26.0 ± 1.3
ΔBMI (kg/m2) Placebo 14   −0.07 ± 0.37 0.14 ± 0.39 −0.02 ± 0.58 0.08 ± 0.57
GH 15   −0.15 ± 0.36 −0.01 ± 0.38 −0.13 ± 0.42 0.03 ± 0.53
GH + Caf 25 15   −0.05 ± 0.31 −0.14 ± 0.40 −0.23 ± 0.40 −0.19 ± 0.65
GH + Caf 50 15   −0.13 ± 0.42 −0.19 ± 0.52 −0.28 ± 0.56 −0.27 ± 0.70
GH + Caf 75 15   −0.13 ± 0.41 −0.35 ± 0.55# −0.56 ± 0.74# −0.51 ± 0.84
Waist (cm) Placebo 14 90.9 ± 5.7 90.7 ± 5.5 91.1 ± 5.1 91.3 ± 4.8 91.3 ± 5.3
GH 15 90.6 ± 3.0 90.6 ± 3.5 90.6 ± 3.4 90.6 ± 3.3 90.6 ± 3.8
GH + Caf 25 15 90.4 ± 5.3 89.9 ± 5.9 89.3 ± 6.0* 89.1 ± 6.2* 89.5 ± 6.4
GH + Caf 50 15 90.0 ± 4.7 89.6 ± 5.0 89.7 ± 5.2 89.1 ± 5.8 88.8 ± 6.5
GH + Caf 75 15 91.0 ± 4.4 91.0 ± 3.9 90.3 ± 4.0 89.9 ± 3.5 89.8 ± 3.1
ΔWaist (cm) Placebo 14   −0.12 ± 0.9 0.19 ± 1.4 0.44 ± 2 0.42 ± 2.1
GH 15   0.01 ± 1.0 −0.01 ± 1.4 −0.02 ± 1.3 −0.03 ± 1.3
GH + Caf 25 15   −0.49 ± 1.1 −1.17 ± 1.4# −1.31 ± 1.6# −0.96 ± 2.2
GH + Caf 50 15   −0.31 ± 1.1 −0.28 ± 1.3 −0.82 ± 1.9 −1.12 ± 2.6
GH + Caf 75 15   0.05 ± 1.0 −0.66 ± 0.9 −1.11 ± 1.7 −1.21 ± 2.2
Hip (cm) Placebo 14 96.5 ± 5.1 96.3 ± 5.3 96.5 ± 5.1 96.9 ± 5.5 97.1 ± 5.6
GH 15 96.8 ± 2.9 96.6 ± 2.8 96.9 ± 2.8 96.4 ± 3.1 96.6 ± 2.8
GH + Caf 25 15 95.9 ± 4.4 96.1 ± 4.0 96.1 ± 4.0 96.0 ± 4.5 96.0 ± 5.0
GH + Caf 50 15 97.1 ± 3.1 96.8 ± 3.2 97.0 ± 3.2 97.0 ± 3.5 97.0 ± 3.4
GH + Caf 75 15 96.4 ± 4.6 96.2 ± 4.6 96.0 ± 4.6 95.5 ± 4.5 95.6 ± 4.6
ΔHip (cm) Placebo 14   −0.17 ± 0.7 0.01 ± 1.1 0.37 ± 1.6 0.64 ± 1.4
GH 15   −0.17 ± 0.8 0.05 ± 1.3 −0.41 ± 1.2 −0.23 ± 1.5
GH + Caf 25 15   0.23 ± 0.8 0.17 ± 1.0 0.13 ± 1.4 0.06 ± 2.0
GH + Caf 50 15   −0.26 ± 0.8 −0.11 ± 1.3 −0.08 ± 1.7 −0.13 ± 2.0
GH + Caf 75 15   −0.21 ± 1.0 −0.39 ± 1.2 −0.85 ± 1.8 −0.79 ± 2.0
  1. GH glucosyl hesperidin 500 mg, Caf 25, 50, 75 caffeine 25 mg, 50 mg, 75 mg, BMI Body Mass Index
  2. Mean ± SD, *p < 0.05, vs. baseline (week-0), (paired t-test), #p < 0.05 vs. placebo (Dunnett’s test or Steel’s test)