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Table 1 Subject characteristics according to categories of daily isoflavone intake

From: Relationship between daily isoflavone intake and sleep in Japanese adults: a cross-sectional study

  Categories of isoflavone intakea p for trendb
Q1 (Low) Q2 Q3 Q4 (High)
n 269 269 269 269  
Sex (male; %) 75.8 79.6 77.3 74.7 0.628
Age (years) 43.3 (42.0, 44.5)c 45.5 (44.3, 46.7) 46.9 (45.7, 48.2) 49.6 (48.4, 50.9) <0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 23.1 (22.7, 23.6) 23.2 (22.7, 23.6) 23.5 (23.1, 24.0) 22.9 (22.5, 23.3) 0.672
Dietary intake      
 Vitamin B12 (μg/1000 kcal) 4.0 (3.7, 4.3) 4.6 (4.3, 4.9) 4.9 (4.6, 5.2) 4.9 (4.6, 5.2) <0.001
 Vitamin C (mg/1000 kcal) 42.3 (39.4, 45.1) 48.1 (45.2, 50.9) 52.9 (50.0, 55.7) 60.2 (57.3, 63.0) <0.001
 Vitamin D (mg/1000 kcal) 5.0 (4.6, 5.5) 5.9 (5.4, 6.4) 6.8 (6.3, 7.3) 7.1 (6.6, 7.6) <0.001
 Coffee consumption (g/d) 254.6 (231.0, 278.2) 236.7 (213.1, 260.3) 247.7 (224.1, 271.3) 211.4 (187.7, 235.0) 0.028
PA (high; %) 47.6 48.0 45.0 59.5 0.016
Smoking status (%)  
 Current smoker 55.3 46.9 42.3 36.1 <0.001
 Ex-smoker 8.2 12.2 15.0 14.5 0.016
 Nonsmoker 34.6 39.8 45.7 51.3 <0.001
Drinking status (%)  
 Drinking everyday 28.3 30.5 26.0 25.3 0.272
 Drinking occasionally 48.0 49.8 49.8 53.5 0.220
 Nondrinker 23.8 19.7 24.2 21.2 0.768
Education level ≥ college (%) 76.6 68.0 71.0 73.6 0.626
Occupation (desk work; %) 45.9 43.9 39.9 50.8 0.439
Metabolic syndrome (%) 28.3 27.5 33.8 29.0 0.493
Depression (%) 14.1 14.5 11.5 13.8 0.661
hsCRP (mg/L) 0.1 (0.7, 1.4) 1.1 (0.7, 1.4) 1.1 (0.8, 1.5) 0.6 (0.3, 1.0) 0.172
Hypnotic drug use (%) 4.8 3.3 2.2 3.0 0.173
  1. aBMI body mass index, PA physical activity, hsCRP high-sensitivity C-reactive protein
  2. bObtained using analysis of variance for continuous variables and χ2 test for proportional variables
  3. cMean (95 % CI) (all such values)