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Table 3 Characteristics of prospective cohort studies of meat cooking methods, heterocyclic amines, and/or heme iron and prostate cancer a

From: A review and meta-analysis of prospective studies of red and processed meat, meat cooking methods, heme iron, heterocyclic amines and prostate cancer

Author, year Study cohort (Country) No. of subjects (No. of cases) Age range (mean) Year baseline diet assessed Follow-up, years Meat cooking methods exposures analyzed Heterocyclic amine or heme iron exposures analyzed Prostate cancer outcome
Cross et al, 2005 [47] PLCO (US) 29,361 (1338) 55–74 1993–2001 11 Barbequed meat; panfried meat; very well-done meat DiMeIQx; MeIQx; PhIP; B(a)P; Mutagenic activity Total PCa; incident PCa; advanced PCa
Jackszyn 2012 [50] EPIC (Europe) 139,005 (4606) >30 1989–2004 11 None Heme iron Total PCa, advanced PCa, localized PCa
Koutros et al, 2008 [34] AHS (US) 23,080 (668) 48.3 [mean] 1993–1997 10 Grilled meat; pan-fried meat; broiled meat; rare or medium cooked meat; well and very well done cooked meat DiMeIQx; MeIQx; PhIP; B(a)P; Mutagenic activity Total PCa; incident PCa; advanced PCa
Rohrmann et al, 2015 [49] HPFS (US) 26,030 (2770) 40–75 1996 14 None MeIQx; DiMeIQx; PhIP; Meat-Derived Mutagenicity Index Total PCa, advanced or lethal PCa
Sander et al, 2011 [16] EPIC-Heidelberg (Germany) 9578 (337) 40–65 2002–2004 7 Degree of browning: strong/extreme; light/moderate DiMeIQx; MeIQx; PhIP Total PCa; advanced PCa
Sharma et al, 2010 [18] Multiethnic Cohort (US) 4169 (2106) 45–75 1993–1996 8 Meat preference: medium; well done None Total PCa
Sinha et al, 2009 [44] NIH-AARP (US) 175,343 (10,313) 50–71 1995–1996 8 Grilled/barbequed meat; pan-fried meat; broiled meat; microwaved meat; rare/medium cooked meat; well = done DiMeIQx; MeIQx; PhIP; B(a)P; heme iron Total PCa; advanced PCa; fatal PCa
  1. a PCa, prostate cancer; PLCO, Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, Ovarian Screening Trial; AHS, Agricultural Health Study; EPIC, European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition; NIH-AARP, National Institutes of Health-American Association for Retired Persons Diet and Health Study; HFPS, Health Professionals Follow-Up Study; DiMeIQx, 2- amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline; MeIQx, 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-b]quinoxaline; PhIP, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine; B(a)P, benzo(a)pyrene