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Table 2 Summary relative risk estimates (SRRE), 95 % confidence intervals (CI), p-values for heterogeneity and I2 statistics for red and processed meat intake and prostate cancer (high vs. low exposure unless otherwise noted)

From: A review and meta-analysis of prospective studies of red and processed meat, meat cooking methods, heme iron, heterocyclic amines and prostate cancer

Model (number of studies a or data points) SRRE 95 % CI P-value for Heterogeneity; I2
Total red meat
 Total red meat and total prostate cancer (n = 10) 1.02 0.92–1.12 0.006; 61.0 %
   Per 1 serving/day increase 0.96 0.91–1.00  
   Intake of 0–0.50 servings/day (n = 5) 1.41 1.09–1.81 0.189; 34.85 %
   Intake of >0.50–1.0 servings/day (n = 13) 1.02 0.98–1.05 0.735; 0.00 %
   Intake of >1.0–1.5 servings/day (n = 10) 1.01 0.93–1.10 0.077; 42.07 %
   Intake of >1.0 servings/day (n = 7) 0.88 0.75–1.04 0.005; 67.68 %
 Total red meat and non-advanced prostate cancer (n = 3) 0.98 0.63–1.53 0.051; 66.3 %
   Per 1 serving/day increase 0.71 0.46–1.10  
   Intake of <1 serving/day (n = 4) 1.10 0.92–1.31 0.619; 0.00 %
   Intake of >1 serving/day (n = 5) 0.89 0.66–1.19 0.060; 55.69 %
 Total red meat and advanced prostate cancer (n = 9) 1.01 0.86–1.17 0.177; 30.2 %
   Per 1 serving/day increase 0.97 0.91–1.04  
   Intake of 0–0.75 servings/day (n = 9) 1.08 0.94–1.23 0.319; 13.78 %
   Intake of >0.75–1.0 servings/day (n = 4) 1.06 0.92–1.23 0.697; 0.00 %
   Intake of >1.0–1.5 servings/day (n = 8) 1.04 0.92–1.18 0.481; 0.00 %
   Intake of >1.0 servings/day (n = 4) 1.14 0.95–1.37 0.328; 12.95 %
 Total red meat and fatal prostate cancer (n = 3) 1.06 0.82–1.37 0.35; 4.80 %
   Per 1 serving/day increase 1.05 0.73–1.52  
   Intake of <1 serving/day (n = 5) 1.09 0.91–1.30 0.350; 9.89 %
   Intake of >1 serving/day (n = 5) 1.15 0.96–1.38 0.474; 0.00 %
Fresh red meat
 Fresh red meat and total prostate cancer (n = 9) 1.06 0.97–1.16 0.113; 38.3 %
   Per 1 serving/day increase 0.91 0.81–1.03  
   Intake of 0- < 0.25 servings/day (n = 9) 1.08 0.97–1.19 0.924; 0.00 %
   Intake of 0.25- < 0.5 servings/day (n = 8) 1.07 1.02–1.13 0.519; 0.00 %
   Intake of 0.5–0.75 servings/day (n = 6) 1.04 0.97–1.12 0.363; 8.28 %
   Intake of >0.75 servings/day (n = 9) 1.07 0.95–1.19 0.171; 30.95 %
 Fresh red meat and advanced prostate cancer (n = 6) 1.01 0.86–1.20 0.180; 34.107 %
   Per 1 serving/day increase 0.88 0.69–1.12  
   Intake of 0–0.25 servings/day (n = 9) 1.14 0.97–1.34 0.776; 0.00 %
   Intake of >0.25–0.50 servings/day (n = 8) 0.99 0.89–1.10 0.543; 0.00 %
   Intake of >0.50 servings/day (n = 10) 0.99 0.89–1.11 0.398; 4.66 %
Processed meat
 Processed red meat and total prostate cancer (n = 11) 1.05 1.01–1.10 0.406; 3.38 %
   Per 1 serving/day increase 1.01 0.96–1.05  
   Intake of 0–0.25 servings/day (n = 9) 1.05 0.99–1.10 0.369; 7.93 %
   Intake of >0.25–0.50 servings/day (n = 12) 1.05 1.00–1.09 0.407; 3.91 %
   Intake of >0.50–0.75 servings/day (n = 6) 1.02 0.97–1.07 0.506; 0.00 %
   Intake of >0.75 servings/day (n = 10) 1.04 0.99–1.10 0.176; 29.20 %
 Processed meat and advanced prostate cancer (n = 8) 1.12 0.95–1.33 0.040; 52.4 %
   Per 1 serving/day increase 1.10 0.98–1.24  
   Intake of 0–0.25 servings/day (n = 12) 0.95 0.80–1.12 0.004; 60.09 %
   Intake of >0.25–0.50 servings/day (n = 9) 1.07 0.90–1.26 0.009; 60.61 %
   Intake of >0.50 servings/day (n = 8) 1.13 0.99–1.29 0.116; 39.42 %
 Processed meat and fatal prostate cancer (n = 2) 1.09 0.63–1.90 0.073; 68.9 %
   Per 1 serving/day increase 0.84 0.44–1.61  
   Intake of <0.50 servings/day (n = 4) 0.93 0.75–1.15 0.276; 22.49 %
   Intake of >0.50 servings/day (n = 3) 0.95 0.69–1.30 0.112; 54.36 %
  1. a Number of studies indicated in parentheses for high vs. low analyses; number of data points indicated in parentheses for dose- response analyses (in italics)