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Table 1 Study population characteristics

From: Perceived stress, unhealthy eating behaviors, and severe obesity in low-income women

  Totala Under/Normal weightb Overweightc Moderately obesed Severely obesee p-valuef
N 101 17 22 27 15  
Race/ethnicity—N (%)       0.39
Non-Hispanic white 33 (32.7) 8 (47.1) 6 (27.3) 13 (27.7) 6 (40.0)  
Non-Hispanic black 46 (45.5) 4 (23.5) 9 (40.9) 25 (53.2) 8 (53.3)  
Non-Hispanic other 6 (5.9) 1 (5.9) 3 (13.6) 2 (4.3) 0 (0.0)  
Hispanic 16 (15.8) 4 (23.5) 4 (18.2) 7 (14.9) 1 (6.7)  
Age (years)—N (%)       0.09
18–24 35 (34.7) 8 (47.1) 12 (54.5) 11 (23.4) 4 (26.7)  
25–29 37 (36.6) 5 (29.4) 8 (36.4) 20 (42.6) 4 (26.7)  
30–34 15 (14.9) 2 (11.8) 1 (4.5) 10 (21.3) 2 (13.3)  
35–44 14 (13.9) 2 (11.8) 1 (4.5) 6 (12.8) 5 (33.3)  
Some college or more—N (%) 47 (46.5) 9 (52.9) 6 (27.3) 24 (51.1) 8 (53.3) 0.24
Married—N (%) 62 (61.4) 14 (82.4) 15 (68.2) 26 (55.3) 7 (46.7) 0.13
Income—N (%)       0.70
Less than $10,000 31 (32.3) 4 (23.5) 4 (20.0) 17 (37.8) 6 (42.9)  
$10,000 to $39,999 50 (52.1) 10 (58.8) 12 (60.0) 21 (46.7) 7 (50.0)  
$40,000 or more 15 (15.6) 3 (17.6) 4 (20.0) 7 (15.6) 1 (7.1)  
Reported unusual diet intake—N (%) 37 (36.6) 8 (47.1) 7 (31.8) 17 (36.2) 5 (33.3) 0.78
Perceived stressg—mean (SD) 26.3 (0.8) 25.9 (2.2) 24.0 (1.6) 26.0 (1.1) 31.2 (2.2) 0.07
Cognitive restrainth—mean (SD) 44.0 (2.1) 39.9 (5.7) 44.2 (4.8) 42.9 (2.7) 51.9 (6.6) 0.43
Uncontrolled eatingh—mean (SD) 30.6 (1.6) 39.9 (3.6) 25.9 (2.8) 29.0 (2.7) 31.9 (3.6) 0.05
Emotional eatingh—mean (SD) 36.9 (3.1) 26.1 (5.4) 29.3 (6.6) 40.4 (4.8) 48.9 (7.1) 0.10
Healthy Eating Indexi—mean (SD) 43.9 (1.6) 44.4 (4.9) 43.6 (3.4) 41.8 (1.8) 50.2 (5.1) 0.37
  1. aMean BMI = 32 kg/m2
  2. bBMI ≤ 24 kg/m2
  3. cOverweight: BMI ≥ 25 and < 30 kg/m2
  4. dModerately obese: BMI ≥ 30 and < 40 kg/m2
  5. eSeverely obese: BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2
  6. fComparisons across weight status: Chi-square for categorical variables, multivariate analysis of variance for continuous variables
  7. gThe 14-item Perceived Stress Scale, a validated measure of the degree to which situations are appraised as stressful [38]
  8. hThe 18-item Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire [39], an abbreviated version of the original 51-item questionnaire [34]
  9. iThe Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010) [41], an average of two scores used for 59 women (58 % of our total sample) who completed two 24-h dietary recalls