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Table 3 Sex-stratified dietary micronutrient intake in the vegan and the Danish National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity (DANSDA) study samples with the 2012 Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR)

From: Intake of macro- and micronutrients in Danish vegans

  Men Women
Vegan DANSDA P* NNR Vegan DANSDA P* NNR
(n = 33) (n = 566) (n = 37) (n = 691)
Vitamin A (RE/day) 592 1240 <2 × 10−16** 900 542 929 2.3 × 10−11** 700
(406–1006) (880–1808) (358–932) (660–1296)
Retinol (μg/day) 0.03 940 <2 × 10−16***   8.3 507 <2 × 10−16***  
(0.00–29.7) (606–1463) (0.0–33) (359–742)
β-carotene (μg/day) 5307 2775 6.65 × 10−9**   6827 3832 0.00033**  
(3319–9154) (1574–4514) (3833–11130) (2049–6869)
Vitamin D (μg/day) 0 2.9 <2 × 10−16*** 10 0 2.2 <2 × 10−16*** 10
(2.2–4.3) (1.6–3.4)
Vitamin E (αTE/day) 19.6 7.9 <2 × 10−16** 10 15.3 7.1 <2 × 10−16 8
(13–37) (7–10) (13–18) (6–9)
Thiamine (mg/day) 2.1 1.5 7.58 × 10−16 1.3 1.5 1.1 9 × 10−15 1.1
(1.8–2.7) (1.2–1.8) (1.2–1.8) (1.0–1.3)
Riboflavin (mg/day) 1.2 1.9 <2 × 10−16** 1.5 1.0 1.5 <2 × 10−16** 1.2
(1.0–1.8) (1.5–2.3) (0.9–1.2) (1.2–1.8)
Niacin (NE/day) 21.3 37.4 <2 × 10−16 18 17.5 26.8 <2 × 10−16 14
(19.4–29.3) (32.1–43.2) (15.0–21.2) (23.6–31.2)
Vitamin B6 (mg/day) 2.5 1.7 <2 × 10−16 1.5 1.9 1.4 3.2 × 10−13 1.2
(1.8–2.8) (1.5–2.0) (1.3–2.1) (1.1–1.6)
Folic Acid (μg/day) 628 339 <2 × 10−16** 300 578 308 <2 × 10−16 300
(465–787) (288–411) (526–725) (249–379)
Vitamin B12 (μg/day) 0 6.1 <2 × 10−16 2 0 4.2 <2 × 10−16 2
(4.8–7.7) (3.3–5.3)
Vitamin C (mg/day) 221 100 <2 × 10−16** 75 221 110 <2 × 10−16** 75
(144–330) (76–138) (170–254) (79–151)
Calcium (mg/day) 885 1154 <2 × 10−16** 800 724 1054 <2 × 10−16** 800
(786–1104) (923–1481) (591–927) (862–1303)
Phosphorus (mg/day) 1555 1686 5.24 × 10−6 600 1249 1297 2.9 × 10−6 600
(1325–1903 (1443–1985) (990–1400) (1136–1514)
Magnesium (mg/day) 645 412 <2 × 10−16 350 484 332 <2 × 10−16 280
(509–802) (354–475) (415–556) (285–383)
Sodium (mg/day) 2068 4226 <2 × 10−16 <2400 1589 3020 <2 × 10−16 <2400
(1283–2656) (3553–4994) (1146–1899) (2531–3566)
Potassium (mg/day) 4274 3871 1.96 × 10−8 3500 3602 3183 0.0058 3100
(3648−5623) (3297–4575) (2852–4179) (2763–3718)
Iron (mg/day) 18.5 12.0 <2 × 10−16** 9 13.5 9.3 <2 × 10−16** 15
(16.0–24.3) (10.3–14.3) (11.0–17.1) (8.0–10.7)
Zinc (mg/day) 10.5 13.0 1.82 × 10−10 9 8.6 9.6 1.12 × 10−8 7
(8.1–15.3) (11.3–15.1) (6.6–10.2) (8.4–11.2)
Iodine (μg/day) 64 213 <2 × 10−16** 150 65 178 <2 × 10−16 150
(43–91) (180–269) (54–86) (146–215)
Selenium (μg/day) 33 52 <2 × 10−16** 60 25 39 <2 × 10−16** 50
(25–40) (44–60) (19–30) (33–46)
  1. Data is presented as median daily intake (interquartile range)
  2. *Multiple linear regressions adjusted for age and energy intake were applied to test for difference in means between the vegan and DANSDA study samples. In case of non-normality log-transformation (**) or an unadjusted Welch’s t-test was applied (***)