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Table 2 Patterns of changes in the densities of small-intestinal endocrine cells in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), celiac disease, and postinfectious IBS (PI-IBS)

From: The relation between celiac disease, nonceliac gluten sensitivity and irritable bowel syndrome

Endocrine cell type IBS Celiac disease PI-IBS
Secretin Decreased Decreased Unknown
Cholecystokinin (CCK) Decreased Increased Increased
Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) Decreased Increased Unknown
Serotonin Unchanged Increased Unchanged
Somatostatin Decreased Increased Unknown