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Table 1 Basic comparison of the adaptive immune system between avian and mammals

From: IgY antibodies in human nutrition for disease prevention

Vertebrate class Immunoglobulin isotype
Mammals IgM IgD IgG IgE IgA
Avian species IgM   IgY IgA
  1. The adaptive immune system of avian and mammals is based on immunoglobulins. Birds produce three types of immunoglobulins (IgM, IgY and IgA), and the mammals five (IgM, IgD, IgG, IgE and IgA). In both cases the acquired immunity includes T-cell receptors (TCRs), polymorphic MHC class I and II molecules, primary and secondary lymphoid organs, rearrangement of the recombination- activating gene (RAG) and antibody class switch