Skip to main content

Table 2 Summary characteristics of studies included in the analysis of vitamin D deficiency and risk of dementia

From: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease and dementia: evidence from meta-analysis

References Year Country Study type Participants Average age (years) OR 95 % CI 25(OH)D (nmol/L) Adjustment
Littlejohns [9] 2014 UK Prospective cohort 1547 73.6 ± 4.5 2.25 1.23–4.13 <25 Age, season of vitamin D collection, education, sex, BMI, smoking, alcohol consumption, and depressive symptoms
Littlejohns [9] 2014 UK Prospective cohort 1547 73.6 ± 4.5 1.53 1.06–2.21 25–50 Age, season of vitamin D collection, education, sex, BMI, smoking, alcohol consumption, and depressive symptoms
Buell [12] 2010 USA Cross-sectional 318 73.5 ± 8.1 2.21 1.13–4.32 ≤50 Age, race, sex, body mass index, and education, kidney function, multivitamin use, season, diabetes, hypertension, plasma homocysteine, and ApoE allele status
Annweiler [13] 2011 France Cross-sectional 288 86.0 ± 0.4 2.57 1.05–6.27 <25 Fully adjusted but without detailed information
Nagel [14] 2015 Germany Cross-sectional 1373 75.6 ± 6.57 1.08 0.60–1.92 ≤50 Adjusted for age, sex, school education, smoking status, season, alcohol consumption, BMI, and history of depression