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Table 4 Effect of almonds on biochemical biomarkersa

From: Effect of almond consumption on vascular function in patients with coronary artery disease: a randomized, controlled, cross-over trial

Biomarker Almond diet Control diet
  Pre Post Pre Post
Plasma Lipid Profile     
 Total cholesterol, mg/dL 146.2 ± 37.8 146.9 ± 32.4 149.8 ± 43.2 148.6 ± 38.3
 HDL-C, mg/dL 41.0 ± 11.2 41.7 ± 11.2 41.7 ± 10.8 43.3 ± 15.6
 LDL-C, mg/dL 78.7 ± 28.6 80.3 ± 26.2 82.67 ± 36.3 77.9 ± 26.3
 Total triglycerides, mg/dL 123.6 ± 90.9 124.3 ± 60.7 129.2 ± 75.5 131.4 ± 60.2
 Small dense LDL-C, mg/dL 30.9 ± 14.1 32.8 ± 14.1 33.7 ± 19.9 29.6 ± 12.1
 Apo-B100, mg/dL 69.0 ± 20.8 71.9 ± 19.0 72.3 ± 25.0 67.1 ± 19.8
 Apo-AI, mg/dL 118.0 ± 22.0 118.4 ± 22.1 118.8 ± 21.0 121.0 ± 28.1
Plasma Inflammatory cytokines     
 C-reactive Protein, mg/L 4.0 ± 6.4 3.3 ± 4.2 4.5 ± 5.7 3.9 ± 5.1
 TNFα, pg/mL 1.8 ± 1.8 1.8 ± 1.6 1.6 ± 1.4 1.7 ± 1.5
 IL-6, pg/mL 3.5 ± 2.2 3.6 ± 2.5 3.8 ± 2.9 4.1 ± 2.9
Endothelial function     
 Plasma E-selectin, ng/mL 28.7 ± 19.6 28.7 ± 18.6 29.4 ± 20.7 27.5 ± 17.7
 Plasma VCAM-1, ng/mL 854 ± 377 787 ± 363b 826 ± 380 835 ± 341
 Plasma nitric oxide, μmol/L 38.2 ± 12.6 41.8 ± 15.8 42.1 ± 17.4 39.3 ± 13.1
 Urinary nitric oxide, μmol/mg creatinine 0.62 ± 0.59 0.56 ± 0.36c 0.63 ± 0.33 0.47 ± 0.29
Oxidative stress     
 Circulating oxidized LDL, mU/mL 741 ± 704 727 ± 637 729 ± 604 778 ± 746
 α-Tocopherol, μg/dL 1080 ± 453 1143 ± 388** 1120 ± 362 1037 ± 347
 γ-Tocopherol, μg/dL 156 ± 82 132 ± 69* 175 ± 104 158 ± 84
  1. aAbbreviation: VCAM-1 vascular cell adhesion molecule-1
  2. bP = 0.0641, cP = 0.09, *P <0.05, **P <0.01, statistical significance between post values tested by LSMEANS