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Table 3 The effect of almonds on measures of vascular activitya

From: Effect of almond consumption on vascular function in patients with coronary artery disease: a randomized, controlled, cross-over trial

Biomarker Almond diet Control diet
  Pre Post Pre Post
 SBP, mmHg 135 ± 21 135 ± 20 136 ± 26 135 ± 23
 DBP, mmHg 73.3 ± 10.3 73.8 ± 9.5 74.1 ± 10.7 73.7 ± 10.6
 FMD, % 7.7 ± 3.3 8.3 ± 3.8 7.8 ± 3.5 7.5 ± 3.7
 NMD, %b 12.0 ± 5.4 11.3 ± 5.3 11.2 ± 5.4 10.4 ± 5.2
 Carotid-femoral PWV, m/s 8.6 ± 1.6 8.4 ± 1.8 8.4 ± 1.7 8.4 ± 1.3
 Carotid-radial PWV, m/s 8.7 ± 1.6 8.5 ± 1.6 8.7 ± 1.8 8.2 ± 1.4
 Hyperemic blood flow, mL/min 984 ± 304 968 ± 334 1095 ± 477 964 ± 339
 Post velocity, cm/s 114 ± 28 109 ± 27 131 ± 99 107 ± 28
 Change in FBF (%) 657 ± 301 582 ± 221 592 ± 210 603 ± 227
 LnPAT 0.61 ± 0.39 0.43 ± 0.47 0.47 ± 0.46 0.50 ± 0.40
  1. aAbbrevations: DBP diastolic blood pressure, FBF forearm blood flow, FMD flow mediated dilation, LnPAT natural log of the pulse amplitude tonometry measured in the finger, PWV pulse wave velocity, SBP systolic blood pressure
  2. bNitroglycerin-mediated dilation (NMD) of the brachial artery, n = 22 participants because some subjects did not participate in this portion of the study if their SBP was <100 mmHg, if they had a history of migraine headaches or if they reported a previous history of prior adverse reaction to nitroglycerin