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Table 2 The change in nutrient consumption before the run-in and at the end of the 2 interventionsa

From: Effect of almond consumption on vascular function in patients with coronary artery disease: a randomized, controlled, cross-over trial

  Before run-in Almond diet Control diet
Calories, Kcal 1732.9 ± 859.1 2049.8 ± 733.0bd 1579.6 ± 784.8c
Proteins, g 70.5 ± 32.3 86.6 ± 33.1bd 67.1 ± 28.4c
Animal protein, g 44.3 ± 21.7 45.4 ± 24.8 43.9 ± 19.4
Protein, % Kcal 16.8 ± 3.6 16.9 ± 2.6 17.6 ± 3.3
Carbohydrates, g 232.0 ± 28.7 215.4 ± 101.1 215.3 ± 122.8
Carbohydrate, % Kcal 53.4 ± 7.3 40.7 ± 7.8bd 53.2 ± 8.3c
Total Fats, g 59.9 ± 37.3 98.1 ± 30.8b 50.6 ± 27.9c
Fat % Kcal 30.5 ± 6.0 44.4 ± 7.2bd 29.1 ± 6.8c
SFA, g 19.7 ± 13.2 20.3 ± 10.1b 16.4 ± 9.4cd
SFA % Kcal 9.9 ± 2.8 8.8 ± 2.2d 9.4 ± 2.8
MUFA, g 21.6 ± 13.3 48.1 ± 12.0bd 18.3 ± 10.3cd
MUFA % Kcal 11.2 ± 2.5 22.4 ± 4.9bd 10.6 ± 3.0c
PUFA, g 12.9 ± 8.3 22.5 ± 7.0bd 11.0 ± 6.7c
PUFA % Kcal 6.6 ± 1.7 10.2 ± 1.6bd 6.3 ± 1.5c
Cholesterols, mg 201.8 ± 148.6 197.8 ± 133.3 188.2 ± 94.3
Fiber, g 19.7 ± 11.2 28.7 ± 10.0bd 18.7 ± 12.5c
Glucose, g 22.3 ± 15.3 18.5 ± 11.8 19.6 ± 13.9
Sucrose, g 42.6 ± 29.0 37.1 ± 24.4 39.1 ± 31.2
Fructose, g 23.6 ± 17.4 19.9 ± 13.5 21.5 ± 16.8
Alcohol, g 2.3 ± 3.7 3.1 ± 4.3 3.3 ± 4.9
Caffeine, mg 152.7 152.5 128.2 ± 117.0 133.7 ± 139.8
Vitamins    
 Vitamin A, IU 10759.2 ± 6077.7 10612.5 ± 7059.1 10880.6 ± 7530.9
 Vitamin C, mg 163.6 ± 183.5 117.7 ± 105.1 129.9 ± 108.3
 Vitamin D, IU 405.9 ± 339.6 381.2 ± 372.2 397.3 ± 372.9
 a-Tocopherol, mg 7.0 ± 3.7 34.5 ± 9.8bd 17.0 ± 29.4cd
 Vitamin K, μg 143.1 ± 102.7 135.9 ± 85.5 150.2 ± 125.0
 Vitamin B1, mg 3.3 ± 7.7 3.2 ± 7.7 3.1 ± 7.6
 Vitamin B2, mg 4.0 ± 7.8 4.6 ± 7.8b 3.7 ± 7.7c
 Niacin, mg 37.1 ± 40.2 37.1 ± 38.9 34.9 ± 38.9
 Vitamin B6, mg 4.6 ± 8.6 5.7 ± 11.4 6.7 ± 17.1
 Folate, μg 943.9 ± 568.3 567.4 ± 346.7d 580.1 ± 378.3d
 Vitamin B12, μg 46.3 ± 127.8 57.8 ± 145.2 67.1 ± 161.2
 Choline, mg 288.5 ± 140.4 325.7 ± 142.6b 274.2 ± 116.6c
 Pantothenic acid, mg 10.6 ± 10.3 9.6 ± 10.3 9.7 ± 10.2
 Retinol, IU 2767.5 ± 1785.9 2388.0 ± 2813.2 2412.3 ± 1965.0
Phytochemicals    
 Flavonoids, mg 252.2 ± 317.0 205.4 ± 252.7 204.7 ± 243.0
 Proanthocyanins, mg 127.5 ± 90.9 275.2 ± 87.5bd 117.3 ± 114.8c
 Carotenoids, mg 7991.7 ± 5219.5 8222.5 ± 5679.8 8459.3 ± 6667.4
Minerals    
 Calcium, mg 982.1 ± 651.3 1078.5 ± 594.5b 865.5 ± 490.0c
 Copper, mg 2.0 ± 1.3 2.8 ± 1.8bd 1.9 ± 1.5c
 Iodine, μg 37.1 ± 63.5 37.1 ± 63.5 40.5 ± 72.8
 Iron, mg 17.0 ± 11.3 19.0 ± 11.9 19.0 ± 16.0
 Potassium, mg 2861.9 ± 1334.9 3261.2 ± 1329.2b 2697.2 ± 1312.5c
 Magnesium, mg 345.2 ± 190.5 544.5 ± 167.9bd 319.9 ± 174.8c
 Manganese, mg 4.1 ± 2.4 5.6 ± 2.4bd 4.0 ± 2.5c
 Phosphate, mg 1234.0 ± 571.2 1537.5 ± 553.7bd 1144.2 ± 522.7c
 Selenium, μg 5.0 ± 8.5 12.2 ± 22.4 10.3 ± 25.4
 Zinc, mg 14.4 ± 8.9 16.9 ± 9.6bd 14.5 ± 11.2c
Amino acids    
 Alanine, g 3.3 ± 1.6 4.2 ± 1.6bd 3.2 ± 1.3c
 Arginine, g 3.9 ± 1.9 6.0 ± 1.8bd 3.7 ± 1.5b
 Aspartic acid, g 6.5 ± 3.0 8.6 ± 3.0bd 6.1 ± 2.6c
 Cysteine, g 1.1 ± 0.5 1.2 ± 0.5b 1.0 ± 0.5c
 Glutamic acid, g 13.7 ± 6.3 18.3 ± 6.3bd 12.9 ± 5.7c
 Glycine, g 3.0 ± 1.4 4.2 ± 1.4bd 2.8 ± 1.2c
 Histidine, g 1.9 ± 0.9 2.4 ± 0.9bc 1.8 ± 0.8c
 Isoleucine, g 3.2 ± 1.5 3.7 ± 1.5b 3.0 ± 1.3c
 Leucine, g 5.6 ± 2.6 6.7 ± 2.7b 5.3 ± 2.2c
 Lysine, g 4.7 ± 2.2 5.2 ± 2.4 4.6 ± 1.9
 Methionine, g 1.6 ± 0.7 1.7 ± 0.8b 1.5 ± 0.6c
 Phenylalanine, g 3.2 ± 1.4 4.0 ± 1.5bd 3.0 ± 1.3c
 Proline, g 4.6 ± 2.2 5.0 ± 2.2b 4.2 ± 2.0c
 Serine, g 3.3 ± 1.5 3.9 ± 1.5b 3.1 ± 1.3c
 Threonine, g 2.6 ± 1.2 3.1 ± 1.2b 2.5 ± 1.0
 Tryptophan, g 0.8 ± 0.3 0.9 ± 0.3b 0.7 ± 0.3c
 Tyrosine, g 2.4 ± 1.1 2.7 ± 1.2b 2.3 ± 1.0c
 Valine, g 3.7 ± 1.7 4.3 ± 1.7b 3.5 ± 1.5c
  1. aAbbreviation: CHO carbohydrates, SFA saturated fatty acids, MUFA monounsaturated fatty acids, PUFA polyunsaturated fatty acids
  2. bcMeans with different letters between almond and control diets differ, tested by LSMEANS
  3. dMeans differ from those of before the run-in, tested by Student’s t-test