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Table 2 Association between consumption of apple products, apples, apple sauce, and apple juice and Healthy Eating Index-2010 total and component scores in children participating in NHANES 2003–2010 (N  = 13,339)

From: Consumption of apples is associated with a better diet quality and reduced risk of obesity in children: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2010

Healthy eating index-2010 & Components Total apple products Apples Apple sauce Apple juice
Consumers (n = 3,482) LSM ± SE Non-Consumers (n = 9,857) LSM ± SE P-value Consumers (n = 1,891) LSM ± SE Non-Consumers (n = 11,448) LSM ± SE P-value Consumers (n = 332) LSM ± SE Non-Consumers (n = 13,007) LSM ± SE P-value Consumers (n = 1,714) LSM ± SE Non-Consumers (n = 11,625) LSM ± SE P-value
Total Score 50.4 ± 0.4 41.9 ± 0.3 <0.001 52.5 ± 0.5 42.7 ± 0.3 <0.001 52.1 ± 0.8 47.2 ± 0.4 <0.001 51.4 ± 0.6 46.5 ± 0.4 <0.001
Total Vegetables 2.2 ± 0.1 2.1 ± 0.03 0.519 2.3 ± 0.1 2.1 ± 0.03 0.108 1.7 ± 0.1 2.0 ± 0.03 0.055 2.0 ± 0.1 2.0 ± 0.04 0.730
Greens & Beans 0.7 ± 0.1 0.6 ± 0.03 0.052 0.8 ± 0.1 0.6 ± 0.02 0.021 0.4 ± 0.1 0.6 ± 0.03 0.070 0.6 ± 0.1 0.5 ± 0.03 0.162
Total Fruit 4.2 ± 0.04 1.9 ± 0.1 <0.001 4.4 ± 0.1 2.2 ± 0.04 <0.001 4.0 ± 0.1 3.1 ± 0.1 <0.001 4.4 ± 0.1 2.9 ± 0.1 <0.001
Whole Fruit 3.6 ± 0.1 1.5 ± 0.1 <0.001 4.7 ± 0.04 1.6 ± 0.04 <0.001 4.4 ± 0.1 2.5 ± 0.1 <0.001 2.8 ± 0.1 2.5 ± 0.1 0.071
Whole Grains 2.0 ± 0.1 1.7 ± 0.1 <0.001 2.1 ± 0.1 1.8 ± 0.1 0.002 2.5 ± 0.3 2.1 ± 0.1 0.102 2.2 ± 0.1 2.1 ± 0.1 0.457
Dairy 7.1 ± 0.1 6.8 ± 0.1 0.028 7.2 ± 0.1 6.9 ± 0.1 0.043 8.0 ± 0.3 7.7 ± 0.1 0.227 7.8 ± 0.2 7.7 ± 0.1 0.521
Total Protein Foods 3.4 ± 0.04 3.5 ± 0.03 0.032 3.5 ± 0.1 3.5 ± 0.03 0.451 3.3 ± 0.1 3.3 ± 0.03 0.608 3.3 ± 0.1 3.4 ± 0.04 0.362
Seafood & Plant Protein 1.4 ± 0.1 1.3 ± 0.03 0.113 1.6 ± 0.1 1.3 ± 0.03 0.001 1.3 ± 0.2 1.4 ± 0.1 0.699 1.3 ± 0.1 1.4 ± 0.1 0.230
Fatty Acid Ratio 3.8 ± 0.1 3.7 ± 0.1 0.466 3.9 ± 0.1 3.8 ± 0.1 0.377 3.3 ± 0.3 3.4 ± 0.1 0.787 3.5 ± 0.2 3.3 ± 0.1 0.281
Sodium 5.3 ± 0.1 4.9 ± 0.1 <0.001 5.3 ± 0.2 5.0 ± 0.1 0.019 6.1 ± 0.4 5.4 ± 0.1 0.091 5.7 ± 0.2 5.4 ± 0.1 0.072
Refined Grains 5.4 ± 0.1 5.1 ± 0.1 0.022 5.3 ± 0.2 5.2 ± 0.1 0.408 6.2 ± 0.4 5.7 ± 0.1 0.300 6.0 ± 0.2 5.6 ± 0.1 0.064
Empty Calories 11.2 ± 0.2 8.6 ± 0.1 <0.001 11.5 ± 0.3 8.9 ± 0.12 <0.001 11.1 ± 0.4 10.1 ± 0.2 0.025 11.7 ± 0.3 9.8 ± 0.2 <0.001
  1. Data Source: Children 2 to 18 years of age participating in the NHANES 2003–2010
  2. Bolded values are significantly different p < 0.01; statistical differences were assessed linear regression
  3. Abbreviations: LSM-Least Square Means; SE-Standard Error
  4. Covariates: Gender, ethnicity, age, Poverty Income Ratio (PIR 0–1.25, 1.25–3.4, ≥3.50), and Physical Activity Level (Sedentary, Moderate, Active)