Skip to main content

Table 1 Demographic characteristics of children 2–18 years (N = 13,339) participating in NHANES 2003–2010 by total apple and apple product consumption

From: Consumption of apples is associated with a better diet quality and reduced risk of obesity in children: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2010

  Total apple products Whole apples Apple sauce Apple juice
Variable Consumers (n = 3,482) LSM ± SE Non-Consumers (n = 9,857) LSM ± SE P-value Consumers (n = 1,891) LSM ± SE Non-Consumers (n = 11,448) LSM ± SE P - value Consumers (n = 332) LSM ± SE Non-Consumers (n = 13,007) LSM ± SE P-value Consumers (n = 1,714) LSM ± SE Non-Consumers (n = 11,625) LSM ± SE P-value
Gender (%)             
 Female 49.9 ± 1.4 49.0 ± 0.8 0.584 50.4 ± 1.8 49.0 ± 0.8 0.466 49.5 ± 3.2 49.2 ± 0.8 0.930 49.9 ± 2.1 49.1 ± 0.8 0.732
Ethnicity (%)             
 NHW 58.3 ± 2.0 61.0 ± 2.0 0.334 57.1 ± 2.3 60.8 ± 2.0 0.220 76.7 ± 3.2 59.7 ± 1.9 <0.001 55.6 ± 2.6 60.9 ± 1.9 0.105
 NHB 13.0 ± 1.1 14.9 ± 1.1 0.227 10.6 ± 1.1 15.0 ± 1.1 0.004 12.4 ± 2.0 14.5 ± 1.0 0.367 15.4 ± 1.4 14.3 ± 1.0 0.508
 MA 15.9 ± 1.3 12.4 ± 1.2 0.039 18.0 ± 1.5 12.5 ± 1.2 0.004 5.2 ± 1.3 13.6 ± 1.2 <0.001 16.1 ± 1.6 12.9 ± 1.1 0.104
Age (Years) 8.3 ± 0.2 10.7 ± 0.1 <0.001 9.1 ± 0.2 10.3 ± 0.1 <0.001 7.2 ± 0.3 10.2 ± 0.1 <0.001 7.2 ± 0.2 10.5 ± 0.1 <0.001
PIR 2.6 ± 0.1 2.5 ± 0.1 0.486 2.6 ± 0.1 2.5 ± 0.1 0.155 2.6 ± 0.2 2.5 ± 0.1 0.504 2.4 ± 0.1 2.5 ± 0.1 0.159
PA (%)             
 Sedentary 13.0 ± 1.0 12.7 ± 0.6 0.839 12.4 ± 1.3 12.9 ± 0.5 0.722 8.2 ± 1.7 12.9 ± 0.5 0.009 16.0 ± 1.6 12.3 ± 0.5 0.032
 Moderate 20.4 ± 1.1 19.8 ± 0.7 0.676 20.4 ± 0.7 17.6 ± 1.6 0.115 32.7 ± 3.7 19.6 ± 0.7 <0.001 20.8 ± 1.7 19.9 ± 0.7 0.590
 Active 66.7 ± 1.3 67.5 ± 0.9 0.621 66.8 ± 0.8 70.0 ± 2.2 0.164 59.1 ± 3.7 67.5 ± 0.8 0.025 63.2 ± 1.9 67.8 ± 0.8 0.025
Current smoker (%) 2.5 ± 0.4 7.5 ± 0.5 <0.001 6.8 ± 0.4 2.3 ± 0.4 <0.001 1.3 ± 0.7 6.3 ± 0.4 <0.001 2.6 ± 0.7 6.7 ± 0.4 <0.001
Alcohol (g) 0.3 ± 0.1 0.6 ± 0.1 0.012 0.5 ± 0.1 0.3 ± 0.1 0.075 0.0 ± 0.0 0.5 ± 0.1 <0.001 0.2 ± 0.1 0.5 ± 0.1 0.016
  1. Data Source: Children 2 to 18 years of age participating in the NHANES 2003–2010
  2. Bolded values are significantly different p < 0.01; statistical differences were assessed using z-statistics
  3. Abbreviations: LSM = Least Square Means; SE = Standard Error; NHW = Non-Hispanic White; NHB = Non-Hispanic Black; MA = Mexican American; PIR = poverty index ratio; PA = physical activity