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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies for meta-analysis

From: Zingiberaceae extracts for pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Patient group Number of subjects Percent female Mean age ± SD (years) Intervention Control Results for pain
   Treated Control Treated Control Treated Control    
Bliddal et al., 2000 [42] Osteoarthritis of knee or hip. 56 56 73 73 Age range 24–87 Age range 24–87 Capsules containing 170 mg ginger extract, 3 capsules per day for 3 weeks. Placebo (crossover design). Pain was not significantly different between the ginger and placebo groups.
Altman et al. 2001 [43] Osteoarthritis of knee. 124 123 60 63 64.0 ± 11.5 66.3 ± 11.6 Capsules containing 255 mg of mixed ginger and galangal rhizome extracts, 2 capsules per day for 6 weeks. Placebo (parallel design). Pain on walking was significantly lower in the ginger/galangal group after 6 weeks of treatment compared with the placebo group.
Wigler et al., 2003 [44] Symptomatic gonarthritis. 29 29 79 79 Age range 42–85 Age range 42–85 Capsules containing 250 mg ginger rhizome extract, 4 capsules per day for 3 months. Placebo (crossover design). Pain was significantly lower in the ginger group compared with the placebo group.
Brinkhaus et al., 2005 [56] Irritable bowel syndrome. 24 58 58 62 49.5 ± 14.5 49.0 ± 9.1 Capsules containing 20 mg Javanese ginger extract, 3 capsules per day for 18 weeks. Placebo (parallel design). Pain was not significantly different between the Javanese ginger and placebo groups.
Black et al., 2010 [37] Muscle soreness following exercise. 20 20 65 65 20.6 ± 0.6 21.4 ± 0.8 Capsules containing 333 mg ginger rhizome extract, 6 capsules per day for 3 days following eccentric exercise. Placebo (parallel design). Pain was significantly lower in the ginger group compared with the placebo group.
Agarwal et al., 2011 [54] Recovering from surgery. 25 25 84 80 38.4 ± 12.8 37.2 ± 12.7 Capsules containing 500 mg curcumin, 4 capsules per day for 3 weeks. Placebo (parallel design). Pain was significantly lower in the curcumin group compared with the placebo group.
Rahnama et al., 2012 [52] Primary dysmenorrhea. 59 46 100 100 21.4 ± 2.0 21.3 ± 2.2 Capsules containing 500 mg ginger rhizome powder, 3 capsules per day for 5 days. Placebo (parallel design). Pain was significantly lower in the ginger group compared with the placebo group.
Panahi et al., 2014 [50] Osteoarthritis of the knee. 19 21 73 81 57.32 ± 8.78 57.57 ± 9.05 Capsules containing 500 mg curcuminoids and 5 mg black pepper extract (bioavailability enhancer), 3 capsules per day for 6 weeks. Placebo (parallel design). Pain was significantly more reduced in the curcuminoid treatment group, compared with the placebo group.