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Table 3 Protein binding of antiepileptic drugs

From: Selected pharmacokinetic issues of the use of antiepileptic drugs and parenteral nutrition in critically ill patients

Drug Protein binding Candidate for free drug
Old generation AED   
   Phenobarbital 40% No
   Phenytoin 90% Yes
   Carbamazepine 80% Yes
   Valproic acid 90-95% Yes
   Primidone 15% No
   Ethosuximide 0% No
New generation AED   
   Eslicarbazepine acetate 30 No
   Felbamate 25 No
   Gabapentin 0 No
   Lacosamide 15 No
   Lamotrigine 55 No
   Levetiracetam 0 No
   Oxcarbazepine 40 No
   Pregabalin 0 No
   Rufinamide 30 No
   Stiripentol 99 Yes
   Tiagabine 96 Yes
   Topiramate 15 No
   Vigabatrin 0 No
   Zonisamide 50 No