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Table 2 Differences in binding of some antiepileptic drugs to parenteral nutrition fluids and to human serum

From: Selected pharmacokinetic issues of the use of antiepileptic drugs and parenteral nutrition in critically ill patients

Drug Parenteral nutrition formulas Fluid † (μmol/L) Serum (μmol/L) Average Competitive Binding Difference ‡
Carbamazepine A 16.1 2.1 77%
  B 16.9 1.7 82%
  C 17.8 2.5 75%
  D 16.9 2.1 78%
  E 17.3 2.5 75%
Phenytoin A 32.4 88.7 -46%
  B 35.0 80.6 -39%
  C 34.1 74.8 -37%
  D 31.7 67.9 -36%
  E 31.7 68.3 -37%
Phenobarbital A 56.8 75.9 -14%
  B 58.9 74.8 -12%
  C 61.1 77.4 -12%
  D 58.5 77.4 -14%
  E 61.9 78.0 -12%
  A 181.8 1290.2 -75%
Valproic acid B 194.0 1179.6 -72%
  C 156.7 1061.6 -74%
  D 127.0 993.2 -77%
  E 207.6 998.1 -66%
  1. †A = 4.5% Travasol_/25% dextrose; B = 4.5% Travasol_/10% dextrose; C = 4.5% Travasol_/5% dextrose; D = 2.5% Travasol_/10% dextrose; E = 2.5% Travasol_/5% dextrose. ‡100% × (Concentration in Fluid - Concentration in Serum)/(Concentration in Fluid + Concentration in Serum).