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Table 1 Effects of Ramadan fasting on nutrient intake

From: The impact of religious fasting on human health

Outcome Reference Subjects Effect
Energy (kcal) Adlouni [25] 32 M
  Kassab [51] 44 W 1
  Lamine [52] 9 M & 21 W
  Rakicioğlu [27] 21 W 2
  Al-Hourani [53] 57 W
  El Ati [24] 16 W
  Ibrahim [14] 9 M & 5 W
Carbohydrate (%) Adlouni [25] 32 M
  Al-Hourani [53] 57 W
  Bouhlel [33] 9 M
  El Ati [24] 16 W
  Maughan [28] 59 M
  Rakicioğlu [27] 21 W
Protein (%) Adlouni [25] 32 M
  El Ati [24] 16 W
  Maughan [28] 59 M
  Al-Hourani [53] 57 W
  Bouhlel [33] 9 M
  Rakicioğlu [27] 21 W
Fat (%) Bouhlel [33] 9 M
  El Ati [24] 16 W
  Khaled [26] 276 W
  Rakicioğlu [27] 21 W
  Adlouni [25] 32 M
  Al-Hourani [53] 57 W
  Maughan [28] 59 M
  1. 1 Energy intake at day 14 increased compared to pre-fasting values (p < 0.05). Energy intake at day 28 did not change compared to pre-fasting values (p > 0.05).
  2. 2 Energy intake increased to an extent that approached significance (p = 0.058).
  3. M = men; W = women