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Table 7 Fate of Immunomodulatory Polysaccharide Products Following Oral Intake

From: Immunomodulatory dietary polysaccharides: a systematic review of the literature

Category Product Metabol-ized by human gut bacteria? Study type Fate
(method: tissues detected)
Arabinogalactans Larix spp. yes in vitro NA [163169]
Fucoidans Undaria pinnatifida no in vitro Ab: human plasma [108, 170]
Galactomannans Cyamopsis tetragonolobus (partially hydrolyzed guar gum) yes in vivo NA [171]
  Cyamopsis tetragonolobus (guar gum) yes in vitro NA [167]
Glucans Hordeum vulgare NA in vivo Fluorescein-labeled: mouse Mø in the spleen, bone marrow, lymph nodes [73]
  Laminaria digitata (laminarin) yes in vitro NA [29, 170, 172]
  Sclerotium rofsii (scleroglucan) glucan phosphate, Laminaria spp. (laminarin) NA in vivo Alexa Fluor 488-labeled: mouse intestinal epithelial cells, plasma, GALT [29]
  Saccharomyces cervisiae (particulate) NA in vivo Fluorescein-labeled: mouse macrophage in the spleen, bone marrow, lymph nodes [73]
  Trametes versicolor
NA in vivo 14C-labeled: rat and rabbit serum; mouse GI tract, bone marrow, salivary glands, liver, brain, spleen, pancreas [173]
Mannans Aloe barbadensis (aloemannan) yes in vitro FITC-labeled: mouse, GI tract [121, 174]
  Aloe barbadensis
(gel powder)
yes in vitro NA [163]
  Aloe barbadensis (acemannan) NA in vivo 14C-labeled: dog systemic, particularly liver, bone marrow, gut, kidney, thymus, spleen (Carrington Laboratories, personal communication)
Mixed polysaccharide products Ambrotose complex®, Advanced Ambrotose® powder yes in vitro NA [163, 175]
Pectins NA yes in vitro NA [165167, 176]
  Buplerum falcatum (bupleuran 2IIc) NA in vivo Ab bound: mouse Peyer's patch, liver [109]